SKRIPSI Jurusan Sastra Inggris - Fakultas Sastra UM, 2019

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

The Production of Word-Initial VOT of English by Trilingual Speakers and Its Probable Contributing Factors

LENNI FIIT PRAWATI

Abstrak


Keyword: voice onset time, English stop consonants, trilingual speakers.

VOT, known as Voice Onset Time, refers to the time needed from the release of a plosive to the onset of voicing, and it has been recognised as a great way to investigate stop consonants. Knowing the fact that many non-natives find it hard to produce this type of consonant and the fact that there have been only a few studies which have attempted to do this kind of investigation in non-natives whose mother language’s family is quite far from English, this study aims to find out the way Javanese Indonesians produce English stops as well as the probable factors related to their sound production.

The descriptive qualitative research design was applied for this study. The subjects were eight first-year ELL students of UniversitasNegeri Malang. To gather the data, they were asked to read a list of words in English, Indonesian and Javanese; read an English passage, and; have an interview to strengthen the findings of the probable contributing factors of their sound production. The instruments needed to analyse the data were zoom H2N, Audacity, and Praat. They were used to record the utterances, edit the audio, and measure the VOT respectively.

The findings reveal that only one-fourth of the participants (25%) could produce a more native-like VOT than others and they created a new-merged category of English VOT. Most of them produced voiceless stops without a strong force of air and voiced ones with a little breathy voice. The findings also show that

(1) the higher their English proficiency is, especially their speaking skill, the more precise their VOT production is,

(2) their mother tongues indeed play a huge role in their production of English stop consonants,

(3) there are slight differences of VOT values in three different settings (isolated words, careful speech, and spontaneous speech),

(4) males have the tendency to produce less precise English VOT due to psychological and physiological reasons.

It can finally be concluded that there are several factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic, as to why there is a new-merged category when it comes to producing English VOT. It is suggested teachers and lecturers of English improve the learning materials and methodologies to help students understand and acquire it better. Furthermore, it is also suggested future researchers who are interested in conducting a study related to English VOT produced by Javanese Indonesians gather more data and reach broader subjects.