SKRIPSI Jurusan Sastra Inggris - Fakultas Sastra UM, 2008

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Using a Narrative Scaffold to Improve Students’ EFL Writing Ability in SMA Negeri 1 Gambiran-Banyuwangi

Nada Yangrifqi


significantly different at 0.01 level. Furthermore, after weighting was done, it was
found that the students’ writing ability increased from 45.7 points to 74 points. 
In conclusion, a narrative scaffold could be used to improve the students
writing ability. Since the criteria of success of this study could be reached within a
single cycle, this only cycle became the answer of the research problem. The
planning and implementation of the teaching writing narrative texts by using a
narrative scaffold is as follows. Planning the action consists of planning the
teaching schedule, preparing research instrument, designing lesson plan, and
preparing the criteria of success. After that, the implementation of action is
conducted. The teaching and learning process is conducted by using genre based
approach that consisted of four stages. The first stage is building knowledge of the
field, in which the students are introduced to the social context and features of the
narrative text by using a model text. The next stage is modeling of the text stage in
which the teacher assigns the students to investigate the structural pattern and
language features of the model text and compare it with other model texts. Joint
construction of the text stage is the third stage of this genre. In this stage, after the
teacher introduces a narrative scaffold and gives model to the students on how to
write a narrative text by using a narrative scaffold, the students, in group of four,
are assigned to write a narrative text by using a narrative scaffold and modeling
the texts. Then, in the independent construction of the text stage, the students,
independently, are assigned to compose narrative texts by using a narrative
It is recommended for the teachers to use a narrative scaffold and genre
based approach in teaching writing narrative texts. For further researchers, it is
recommended to apply a scaffold and genre based approach in investigating other
text types.Writing is one of the English language skills that should be mastered by
senior high school (SMA) students. However, many students considered that
writing is the most difficult skill to master. Moreover, teachers also provide less
time for teaching writing compared with the other language skills. On the contrary
to this facts, SMAN 1 Gambiran curriculum, the curriculum of the school where
this present study was conducted, is oriented to the production of various text
types. One of the text types introduced in this curriculum is narrative texts. This
text type requires the writer to be able to tell a story, the purpose of which is to
entertain or inform the audience. In writing this genre, the students often feel
confused in developing their stories in a good order.
In the preliminary study, the researcher found that XI IPS 1 students of
SMAN 1 Gambiran had difficulty in writing narrative texts, particularly in terms
of content and organization. They had difficulty to organize their stories in a good
order. Moreover, the students also had difficulty in distinguishing narrative texts
from other text types like recount and spoof. These facts encouraged the
researcher to help the students to improve their ability in writing.
The present study focused on using a narrative scaffold to help the
students to improve their ability in writing narrative texts, particularly in
improving the content and organization of the students’ narrative texts. Therefore,
the research problem was formulated as follows: “How can a narrative scaffold
improve the ability of SMAN 1 GAMBIRAN students in writing narrative texts?” 
This study used a collaborative action research with one cycle that
consisted of five meetings. The cycle consisted of planning the action,
implementing the action, observing and analyzing the action, and reflecting the
action. The instruments used to collect the data were the observation checklist,
field notes and the students’ final writing. In all the steps of this study, the
researcher worked collaboratively with the English teacher who also acted as the
The results of the study showed that in most of the stages, the students’
attention to the teacher’s explanation and instruction was always in the high level
or 81% up to 100% of the students always paid attention to the teacher’s attention
and instruction while the students’ participation increased. Moreover, the
students’ performance also increased. It can be seen from the increase of the
students’ mean scores. The mean in terms of content improved from 1.86 to 2.92
and in terms of organization improved from 1.78 to 3.02. Based on the t-test
formulation, it was found that the differences between the mean scores were.