SKRIPSI Jurusan Sastra Indonesia - Fakultas Sastra UM, 2019

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

TUTURAN DIREKTIF PERINTAH GURU DALAM PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA INDONESIA DI SMA NASIONAL MALANG

Hidayati Nurul

Abstrak


RINGKASAN

Hidayati, Nurul. 2019. Tuturan Direktif Perintah Guru dalam Pembelajaran Bahasa Indonesia di SMA Nasional Malang. Skripsi. Jurusan Sastra Indonesia. Fakultas Sastra. Universitas Negeri Malang.                      Pembinbing: Prof. Dr. Abdul Syukur Ibrahim.

Kata kunci: tuturan direktif perintah, guru bahasa Indonesia, SMA Nasional Malang

Tuturan direktif perintah dapat dijumpai di dunia pendidikan yang penuturnya adalah guru. Guru sebagai penutur bisa menggunakan tuturan direktif perintah untuk memerintah siswa sebagai mitra tutur agar proses pembelajaran berjalan lancar. Berkaitan dengan itu, maka diperlukan pembahasan mengenai tuturan direktif perintah. Fokus penelitian ini ialah fungsi, bentuk, dan strategi tuturan direktif perintah guru dalam pembelajaran bahasa Indonesia di SMA Nasional Malang.

Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitiatif dan jenis penelitian deskriptif. Penelitian ini dilakukan selama dua bulan, yaitu Oktober sampai November 2018. Data penelitian berupa tuturan guru dalam interaksi kelas. Sumber data penelitian ialah guru bahasa Indonesia kelas X, XI, dan XII SMA Nasional Malang. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan mengamati, merekam, dan mencatat tuturan guru selama pembelajaran. Analisis data dilakukan dengan mereduksi data, menyajikan data, dan menarik kesimpulan. Cara yang digunakan untuk mengecek keabsahan data ialah ketekunan pengamatan, kecukupan referensi, dan pengecekan teman sejawat. Tahap-tahap penelitian yang dilakukan, yaitu tahap persiapan, pelaksanaan, dan penyelesaian.

Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, terdapat lima belas fungsi tuturan direktif perintah guru. Fungsi tersebut ialah

(1) perintah untuk mempersiapkan pembelajaran,

(2) perintah untuk mengingat materi,

(3) perintah untuk mengerjakan tugas,

(4) perintah untuk mengumpulkan tugas,

(5) perintah untuk fokus terhadap pembelajaran,

(6) perintah untuk menyelesaikan tugas,

(7) perintah untuk tertib,

(8) perintah untuk membaca materi pelajaran,

(9) perintah untuk menjawab soal,

(10) perintah untuk berorganisasi,

(11) perintah untuk mengumpulkan soal ulangan,

(12) perintah untuk membacakan materi pelajaran,

(13) perintah untuk berhenti membacakan materi pelajaran,

(14) perintah untuk berkelompok, dan

(15) perintah untuk berkemas.

Tuturan direktif perintah guru yang ditemukan berbentuk kalimat perintah. Kalimat perintah ditandai dengan adanya kata kerja, diakhiri dengan tanda seru (!), dan berpartikel –lah. Kalimat perintah dituturkan guru kepada siswa dengan tujuan agar siswa benar-benar mengikuti pembelajaran dengan baik. Tuturan perintah guru dituturkan dalam konteks tertentu sesuai urutan kegiatan pembelajaran, yaitu awal, inti, dan akhir.

Strategi yang ditemukan dalam penelitian ini ialah strategi langsung dan tidak langsung. Strategi tuturan direktif perintah langsung dituturkan dalam bentuk kalimat yang bermakna lugas, sedangkan strategi tuturan direktif perintah tidak langsung dituturkan dalam bentuk kalimat yang berisi sindirian. Strategi tuturan direktif perintah langsung dituturkan guru saat siswa masih bisa diatur dan kondusif dalam pembelajaran, sedangkan strategi tuturan direktif perintah tidak langsung dituturkan guru saat siswa ramai serta tidak tertib dalam pembelajaran.

Kesimpulan penelitian mengenai tuturan direktif perintah guru dalam proses pembelajaran bahasa Indonesia di SMA Nasional Malang ialah terdapat lima belas fungsi dengan bentuk kalimat perintah yang diungkapkan guru melalui strategi langsung dan strategi tidak langsung. Hasil penelitian ini dapat digunakan guru, peneliti lain, dan pembaca untuk menambah wawasan dan referensi mengenai tindak tutur.

SUMMARY

Hidayati, Nurul. 2019. Directive Speech of the Teacher's Command in Learning Indonesian Language at Malang National High School. Essay. Indonesian Literature Department. Faculty of Literature. Malang State University. Advisor: Prof. Dr. Abdul Syukur Ibrahim.

Keywords: command directive speech, Indonesian language teacher, Malang National High School

Command directive speech can be found in the world of education whose speakers are teachers. Teachers as speakers can use directive speech commands to govern students as speech partners so that the learning process runs smoothly. In this regard, a discussion of the directive directives is needed. The focus of this research is the function, form, and speech strategy of the teacher's directive directive in learning Indonesian at Malang National High School.

This study uses a qualitative approach and a type of descriptive research. This research was conducted for two months, namely October to November 2018. The research data were in the form of teacher speeches in class interactions. Sources of research data are Indonesian language teachers in class X, XI, and XII Malang National High School. Data collection is done by observing, recording, and recording the teacher’s speech during learning. Data analysis is done by reducing data, presenting data, and drawing conclusions. The way to check the validity of the data is observation persistence, reference adequacy, and peer checking. The stages of research carried out, namely the stage of preparation, implementation, and completion.

Based on the results of the study, there are fifteen speech directive functions of the teacher's command. The function is

(1) an order to prepare for learning,

(2) an order to remember the material,

(3) an order to do the task,

(4) an order to collect the task,

(5) an order to focus on learning,

(6) an order to complete assignments,

(7) orders for order,

(8) commands for reading subject matter,

(9) commands for answering questions,

(10) orders for organization,

(11) commands for collecting test questions,

(12) commands for reading subject matter ,

(13) orders to stop reading subject matter,

(14) orders for groups, and

(15) orders to pack.

The directive statement of the teacher's command found in the form of a command sentence. The command sentence is indicated by the existence of a verb, ending with an exclamation point (!), And having a particle - it. Command sentences are told by the teacher to students with the aim that students really follow the learning well. Teacher's instruction is spoken in a certain context according to the sequence of learning activities, namely beginning, core, and end.

The strategy found in this study is direct and indirect strategies. The directive speech strategy command is directly spoken in the form of sentences that are straightforward, while the directive speech strategy is not directly told in the form of sentences that contain synergy. The directive speech command strategy is directly told by the teacher when students can still be arranged and conducive to learning, while the directive speech instruction strategy is not directly told by the teacher when the students are crowded and are not orderly in learning.

The conclusion of the research on the directive speech of the teacher's command in the process of learning Indonesian at Malang National High School is that there are fifteen functions with command sentence forms expressed by the teacher through direct strategies and indirect strategies. The results of this study can be used by teachers, other researchers, and readers to add insight and references regarding speech acts.