SKRIPSI Jurusan Sastra Indonesia - Fakultas Sastra UM, 2015

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

Pembelajaran Menulis Teks Diskusi Peserta didik Kelas VIII SMP Negeri 2 Mojokerto

Lia Ristiyanti Putri

Abstrak


ABSTRAK

 

Putri, Lia Ristiyanti. 2015. Pembelajaran Menulis Teks Diskusi Peserta didik Kelas VIII SMP Negeri 2 Mojokerto. Skripsi, Prodi Pendidikan Bahasa, Sastra Indonesia dan Daerah. Jurusan Sastra Indonesia. Fakultas Sastra. Universitas Negeri Malang. Pembimbing (1) Dr. Yuni Pratiwi, M.Pd., (2) Musthofa Kamal, S.Pd., M.Sn.

 

Kata Kunci: menulis, pembelajaran, teks diskusi

 

Penelitian pembelajaran menulis teks diskusi dilatarbelakangi oleh kebutuhan informasi tentang pelaksanaan pembelajaran menulis di sekolah.Menulis adalah kompetensi yang tidak dikuasai oleh semua peserta didik dengan baik tanpa adanya praktik secara berulang. Menulis teks diskusi merupakan salah satu kompetensi dasar dalam Kurikulum 2013 yangbertujuan agar peserta didik mampu menulis teks diskusi sesuai dengan struktur isi yang benar.Tujuanpenelitianiniadalahmendeskripsikan tentang perencanaan, pelaksanaan, dan penilaianpembelajaranmenulis teks diskusi.

Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif dengan desain penelitian studi kasus. Kehadiran peneliti di lapangan mutlak diperlukan karena peneliti berperan sebagai instrumen kunci dan pengumpul data. Penelitian ini dilakukan di SMP Negeri 2 Kota Mojokerto. Sumber data dan data penelitian dipilah sesuai dengan fokus penelitian. Data penelitian berupa; (1) rencana pelaksanaan pembelajaran (RPP); (2) pelaksanaan pembelajaran yang terdiri atas aktivitas pendidik, aktivitas peserta didik, interaksi pendidik dengan peserta didik, dan interaksi peserta didik dengan peserta didik; dan (3) pelaksanaan penilaian yang terdiri atas penilaian proses dan penilaian hasil.Instrumen penelitian berupa pedoman wawancara, pedoman analisis data RPP, pedoman analisis pelaksanaan, dan pedoman analisis data penilaian.Langkah-langkah analisis data penelitian, yaitu (1) pengumpulan data, (2) reduksi data, (3) penyajian data, dan (4) penyimpulan data.Tahap-tahap penelitian yaitu (1) tahap persiapan, (2) tahap pelaksanaan, dan (3) tahap penyelesaian.

Hasil penelitianini berupa deskripsi perencanaan, pelaksanaan, dan penilaianpembelajaran. Hasil penelitian perencanaan menulis teks diskusi antara lain sebagai berikut. Proses pendidik dalam menyusun RPP yaitu berpedoman pada silabus, kemudian melihat kompetensi inti (KI) dan kompetensi dasar (KD). Berdasarkan KI dan KD,pendidik merumuskan indikator. Setelah indikator dirumuskan barulah pendidik menyusun tujuan pembelajaran, materi pembelajaran, pendekatan, metode, model pembelajaran, media dan sumber belajar, langkah-langkah pembelajaranserta penilaian. DalamRPP yang disusun pendidik terdapat upaya mewujudkan KI-2 dan KI-4. Selain itu, RPP yang disusun oleh pendidik menerapkan pendekatan saintifik berupa aktivitas menanya, mencoba, dan mengomunikasikan.

Hasil penelitian pelaksanaan pembelajaran menulis teks diskusi menunjukkan bahwa dalam pelaksanaan pembelajaran terdapat aktivitas pendidik dan peserta didik yang terbagi atas tiga tahap kegiatan, yaitu kegiatan pendahuluan, kegiatan inti, dan kegiatan penutup.Pada kegiatan pendahuluan, aktivitas yang dilakukan yaitu salam, presensi, apersepsi, dan menjelaskan tujuan pembelajaran. Pada kegiatan inti,aktivitas yang dilakukan yaitu mengembangkan kalimat utama dan menentukan struktur teks diskusi secara berkelompok, menulis teks diskusi secara individu, dan mengomunikasikan hasil tulisan. Pada kegiatan penutup aktivitas yang dilakukan yaitu menyimpulkan pembelajaran, melakukan penilaian diri, menjelaskan kegiatan selanjutnya, dan salam.

Hasil penelitian penilaianmenunjukkan bahwa pendidik menggunakan penilaian proses dan penilaian hasil. Penilaian prosesdigunakan untuk menilai kompetensi sikap spiritual dan sosial, sedangkan penilaian hasil digunakan untuk menilai kompetensi keterampilan. Penilaian proses dilakukan oleh pendidik dan peserta didik. Penilaian proses dilakukan pendidik selama pembelajaran sedangkan penilaian proses yang dilakukan peserta didik dilaksanakan pada akhir pembelajaran dengan mengisi lembar penilaian diri.Aspek yang dinilai dalam penilaian sikap spiritual dan sosial meliputi religius, jujur, disiplin, tanggung jawab, toleransi gotong-royong, sopan santun, dan percaya diri. Selanjutnya, penilaian keterampilan dilakukan pendidik setelah tugas menulis teks diskusi dilakukan.Aspek yang dinilai dalam penilaian keterampilan meliputi kelengkapan struktur, ketepatan bahasa, dan keterpaduan wacana.

Simpulan dari penelitian ini terbagi menjadi tiga bagian sesuai dengan fokus penelitian. Pertama,komponen RPP yang disusun pendidik belum berpedoman pada Permendikbud yang baru, yaitu Permendikbud Nomor 103 Tahun 2014 karena masih mencantumkan tujuan pembelajaran dan metode pembelajaran. Kedua,pelaksanaan pembelajaran menulis teks diskusi dilaksanakan selama dua kali pertemuan dengan alokasi waktu 4x40 menit. Pelaksanaan pembelajaran mencakup tiga kegiatan meliputi kegiatan pendahuluan, kegiatan inti, dan kegiatan penutup. Kegiatan pendahuluan pada pertemuan pertama sudah sesuai dengan RPP yang disusun, namun kegiatan pada pertemuan kedua tidak sesuai dengan RPP yang telah disusun. Pada kegiatan inti penggunaan media yang dianggap penting dalam proses pembelajaran tidak digunakan sama sekali sehingga tidak sesuai dengan yang dicantumkan dalam RPP. Pada kegiatan penutup,pendidik tidak melakukan  aktivitas yang dicantumkan dalam RPP.

Ketiga, penilaian pembelajaran menulis teks diskusi terdiri atas penilaian sikap dan keterampilan. Penilaian sikap yang dilakukan pendidik hanya berupa mencatat nama peserta didik yang aktif dalam pembelajaran. Hal tersebut tidak sesuai dengan RPP yang disusun karena dalam RPP telah dicantumkan lembar observasi yang telah dilengkapi kriteria penilaian tetapi malah tidak digunakan. Penilaian sikap yang dilakukan peserta didik sendiri berupa lembar observasi penilaian diri. Aspek penilaian sikap yang dinilai adalah sikap spiritual peserta didik. Hal tersebut sudah sesuai dengan yang dicantumkan dalam RPP. Dalam proses penilaian keterampilan tidak dapat dipastikan pendidik menggunakan rubrik penilaian yang dicantumkan dalam RPP atau tidak karena hasil pekerjaan peserta didik yang telah dinilai hanya terdapat angka tanpa dilengkapi catatan apapun. Hal tersebut dapat mempengaruhi hasil penilaian yang didapat peserta didik. Pendidik dapat melakukan kesalahan penilaian karena faktor keakraban, tulisan yang rapi, dan jumlah paragraf yang ditulis.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

Putri, Lia Ristiyanti. 2015. Discussion Text Writing Instruction for the Eighth Graders Students of SMP Negeri 2 Mojokerto. Thesis, Department of Language Education, Indonesia and Javanese Literature,  Indonesia Department. Faculty of Letters. State University of Malang. Advisors (1) Dr. Yuni Pratiwi, M.Pd., (2) Musthofa Kamal, S.Pd., M.Sn.

 

Keywords: writing, learning, text discussion

 

Research on the teaching to write discussion text is done due to the need of gaining information on the implementation of learning writing at school. Writing is a competence that not all of the learners can master well without any practice repeatedly. Writing discussion text is one of the basic competencies in Curriculum 2013 which aims to make the learners able to write discussion text with the right  content structure. The purpose of this research are describing the planning, implementation, and assessment of learning to write discussion text.

This study used qualitative approach with case study as the research design. The presence of researcher in the field was absolutely necessary since she played role as a key instrument and data collector. This research was conducted at SMP Negeri 2 Mojokerto. The sources of data and the research data were classified according to the research focus. The research data were in the form of (1) lesson plan (RPP); (2) the implementation of learning consisting of teacher’s activities, activities of learners, teacher interaction with learners, and the interaction of learners with learners; and (3) the implementation of the assessment consisting of process assessment and result appraisal. The research instrument were in the form of interview guide, lesson plan data analysis guidelines, implementation analysis guidelines, and guidelines for assessment data analysis. The steps of  the data analysis namely (1) the collection of data, (2) the reduction of the data, (3) the presentation of data, and (4) concluding the data. The stages of the research, namely (1) the preparation phase, (2) the stage of implementation, and (3) the stage of completion.

The results of this research were the description of the planning, the implementation, and the assessment of learning. The study results of writing discussion text planning were in the following discussion. The process of the teacher in preparing the RPP was based on the syllabus, then looked at the core competencies (KI) and basic competences (KD). Based on the KI and KD the teacher formulated indicators. After the indicators were formulated, then the teacher prepared the learning objectives, learning materials, approaches, methods, models of learning, media and learning resources, learning steps and assessment. In the lesson plan that were prepared by the teacher there were the realization of KI 2 and KI-4. Additionally, lesson plan that was arranged by the teacher applied the scientific approach in the form of asking, trying, and communicating activities.

The study results on the implementation of the learning to write discussion text showed that in the teaching and learning process there were activities of the teacher and learners that were divided into three phases, namely preliminary activities, core activities and closing activities. In the preliminary or opening activities, the teacher did greetings, roll calling, apperception and explained the learning objectives. At the core activities, they developed the main sentence and determined the structure of the text in a group discussion, individual writing discussion text, and communicated the writing results. At the closing activities, there were learning conclusion, self-assessment, explained further activities, and greetings.

This study results showed that the teacher used process assessment and results assessment. Process assessment was used to assess the competence of spiritual and social attitudes, while the results assessment was used to assess the skills competency.  The process assessment was carried out by the teacher and the learners. Process assessment was carried out by the teacher during the learning process while for the students was held at the end of the lesson by filling self-assessment form. Some aspects that were considered in the spiritual and social attitudes assessment included religious, honest, discipline, responsibility, tolerance, mutual help, courtesy, and confident. Furthermore, skills assessment conducted by the teacher after the task of writing the text was done. Some aspects that were assessed in the skills assessment were the completeness of the structure, language acquisition, and discourse integration.

The conclusions of this study were divided into three parts according to the research focus. First, the lesson plan components that were composed by the teacher had not been oriented to the new Permendikbud, namely Permendikbud No. 103 of 2014 since they included learning objectives and learning methods. Second, the implementation of learning to write discussion text was held in two meetings with the time allocation 4x40 minutes. There were three activities in the learning process, they were preliminary or opening activities, core activities, and closing activities. The preliminary activities at the first meeting had been arranged in accordance to the RPP, but the activities at the second meeting were not in accordance to the RPP that had been developed. At the core activities the teaching media that were considered important in the learning process were not used at all so it did not correspond to what included in the RPP. At the closing activities the teacher did not do the activities listed in the RPP.

Thirdly, the assessment of learning to write discussion text consisted of attitudes and skills assessment. The teacher only noted down the name of the active learners in the learning process for attitudes assessment. It was not in accordance with the RPP that were prepared for the RPP has included observation sheets completed with assessment criteria but it was not used. The attitudes assessment was done by the learners on their own by filling the self-assessment sheet. The aspect for attitudes assessment was the spiritual attitude of the learners. It was in accordance with RPP. In the process of skills assessment, it could not be ascertained whether the teacher was using the rubric assessment stated in the RPP or not as the result of the students’ works which had been assessed only in the form of numbers with no notes. It could affect the learners’ assessment outcome. The teacher could make errors in judgment due to the familiarity factor, neat handwriting, and the number of paragraphs written.