SKRIPSI Jurusan Ekonomi Pembangunan - Fakultas Ekonomi UM, 2019

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

The role of the Badan Amil Zakat Nasional (BAZNAS) in Empowering the Economy of the Community through Productive Alms (Case Study of the Nganjuk Regency BAZNAS)

Ade Dwi Rangga

Abstrak


The role of the Badan Amil Zakat Nasional (BAZNAS) in Empowering the Economy of the Community through Productive Alms (Case Study of the Nganjuk Regency BAZNAS)

Ade Dwi Rangga Dr. Imam Mukhlis, SE, M.Si Department of Economic Development Faculty of Economics, State University of Malang

ade.dwi.1404324@students.um.ac.id

 

ABSTRACT

This research is motivated by the problems of life faced by Muslims in Indonesia very much, especially problems in the economic sector. These problems include low income levels, low competitiveness in the management of economic resources, high unemployment rates, limited capacity in managing business activities, limited ability to juxtapose information and technology sources and uneven prosperity and high welfare . In this case Indonesia is making efforts to reduce poverty by increasing the economy, one of which is the existence of zakat. Zakat is one of the Islamic instruments used for the distribution of income and wealth. The existence of zakat is expected to reduce the level of wealth inequality in Indonesia.

 

Kata Kunci: BAZNAS, Nganjuk Regency, Productive Zakat, Muzakki.

 

PRELIMINARY

The life problems faced by Islam in Indonesia are very many, especially problems in the economic sector. These problems include low income levels, low competitiveness in the management of economic resources, high unemployment rates, limited capacity in managing business activities, limited ability to juxtapose information and technology sources and uneven prosperity and high welfare.

In this case Indonesia is making efforts to reduce poverty by increasing the economy, one of which is the existence of zakat. Zakat is one of the Islamic instruments used for the distribution of income and wealth. The existence of zakat is expected to reduce the level of wealth inequality in Indonesia.

In accordance with Law Number 23 of 2011 concerning the management of zakat, agencies that are given the mandate to Badan Amil Zakat Nasional (BAZNAS), the Lembaga Amil Zakat (LAZ), Unit Pengumpulan Zakat (UPZ). Amil Zakat Agency is an institution formed by the community that aims to help the collection, distribution and utilization of the community. Whereas the Zakat collection unit is an organizational unit formed by BAZNAS which aims to assist the collection of zakat.

The purpose of zakat management is to increase public awareness in fulfilling and worshiping zakat services, increasing the function and role of religious institutions in an effort to realize social welfare and social justice. While the purpose of zakat according to Law Number 23 Article 3 is to be able to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of services in the management of zakat and be able to increase the benefits of zakat to realize public welfare and poverty alleviation. To create a good management of zakat required conditions such as: First, public awareness of the meaning, purpose and wisdom of zakat. Secondly, amil zakat is truly a trusted person. In this case there is a need for honesty and sincerity of amil zakat, so that it will cause public trust in amil. Third, Planning and monitoring the implementation of good collection.

 

METHOD

The research method in this study is a descriptive qualitative method. This method focuses on observing directly the research environment that has been chosen before and then uses it to find out how the Role of the National Zakat Agency (BAZNAS) in the Empowerment of Productive Economic Community through Alms and Alms in full and as is. The author's role during the research takes the form of a full observer and key instruments that determine the course of the research and the desired research results.

Primary data of this study are data obtained through observation and interviews. While secondary data is graph data or images obtained during research. Then the data collected is a direct quote from the resource person and the data data obtained during the study. The Research Location is the office of the Nganjuk Regency Amil Zakat Agency on K.H Agus Salim No.2 Street Nganjuk Regency.

To obtain data in this study, the techniques of Interview, Observation, and Documentation Study were used. Interviews conducted are semi-structured interviews by preparing topics and a list of questions during the interview process to the informants. In this study, interviews were conducted with five informants in the form of one resource person from PT Telkom Witel Sidoarjo, namely Assistant Manager of CDC Sidoarjo Witel and Six Resource Persons. Then the last is the Documentation Study which collects some supporting data on research such as photos, audio and visual recordings, etc. during the research.

The implementation of the research began with the preparation of research designs. Next is the preparation of research instruments in the form of a list of questions containing the research themes to be studied. If a list of questions has been made, then the observation is done by going directly to the field to record research data in factual and objective. The data that has been obtained is then sorted to find out which one fits the problem in the study. Then proceed with analyzing the data obtained previously. Then the results of the analysis of data are sought conclusions according to the data collected. Drawing conclusions is based on the selection of data sourced from the formulation of the problem which then becomes the answer to the research problem.

Data analysis in this study begins with the data collection stage. that is recording data factually and objectively. If the research data has been collected, then the data will be reduced, namely selecting the appropriate data or those that are not in accordance with the information needed about the research problems being studied. After the data has been reduced, the result is a data presentation in the form of analysis results around the results of the program policies held by the Nganjuk Regency Amil Zakat Agency. Furthermore, the existing research data is then drawn conclusions based on data screening and data presentation which is the answer to the problems raised in the study.

 

DISCUSSION

National Amil Zakat Agency (BAZNAS) is an institution formed by the government based on Law No. 38 of 1999 and Law No. 23 of 2011. At the Regency / city level with the Decree of the Regent / Mayor at the suggestion of the Head of the Regency / City Ministry of Religion Office called the Regional Zakat Agency (BAZDA). Whereas in the District with the Camat SK at the suggestion of the Head of KUA. At the Village / Service / Agency / Office / Institution level, a Zakat Collector Unit (UPZ) can be formed by BAZNAS. BAZNAS Nganjuk Regency which was formed in 2002 was based on the Nganjuk Regent Decree No188 / 117 / K / 426.101.02 / 2002.

The Nganjuk Regency Amil Zakat Agency is in charge of collecting, distributing and utilizing zakat in accordance with the guidelines in Islamic teachings. Amil zakat body functions as a bridge between muzzaki (penzakat) and mustahiq (recipient). The costs of operating the Amil Zakat Agency were obtained from the Nganjuk Regency government and from the amil quota. In this context, zakat is distributed to be able to develop the economy both through skills produced and trade.

The Nganjuk Regency Amil Zakat Agency is expected to absorb the potential of zakat in the Nganjuk Regency area. These zakat assets can be used to improve the standard of living of the people in Semarang City, especially Muslims.

The functions and duties of the Nganjuk Regency Amil Zakat Agency are as follows:

a. Establish the general policy lines of the Nganjuk Regency Amil Zakat Agency (BAZ) with the Supervisory Commission and the Implementing Agency.

b. Issued a syari'ah fatwa both requested and not related to the zakat law which must be followed by the management of the Amil Zakat Agency (BAZ)

c. Accommodate, process, and express people's opinions about the management of zakat.

d. Make a work plan that includes plans for collecting, distributing and utilizing zakat.

e. Carry out operational management of zakat in accordance with approved work plans and established policies.

f. Prepare annual reports

g. Submitting the accountability report to the Nganjuk Regent

Regarding empowerment, basically the strategy of community empowerment in the development of populist economics such as weak economic enterprises is an effort to empower the community through entrepreneurship to realize the potential of potential funds that are always managed professionally and are responsible for promoting public welfare. Like the program carried out by the Amil Zakat Agency of Nganjuk Regency in the utilization of zakat funds with a long-term target of the concept of empowerment can prosper the mustahik, which then mustahik become muzakki.

Related to the utilization and utilization of zakat funds, so far it has been classified into four groups; the first traditional consumptive, the second creative consumptive, the third productive traditional, the fourth creative productive. In the third and fourth form this is often called productive zakat, therefore it is necessary to develop the use of zakat in this form by providing productive goods and providing business capital that can encourage empowerment of mustahik in the business sector, but must be accompanied by effective utilization patterns and right on target, in order to achieve transformation in empowerment.

In this case it can be stated that the Nganjuk Regency Amil Zakat Agency strives as much as possible so that the policy of utilization can be targeted, coordinated with various parties, both the government and zakat management institutions.

In this case, creating a conducive climate and resolving existing problems, the Nganjuk Regency Amil Zakat Agency strives to continue to give meaning to the community, especially the people of Nganjuk Regency. These efforts include providing assistance sourced from zakat funds in the productive category. Productive categories have two objectives: carachter building, assistance in the form of educational scholarships for disadvantaged groups. At least in this group the Nganjuk Regency Amil Zakat Agency annually provides educational assistance to hundreds of mustahik, ranging from elementary schools to senior high schools.

Productive in economic terms. There are two approaches used for productive business capital assistance, namely the mudharabah and qardul hasan approaches. The mudharabah approach is capital assistance provided to small traders in traditional markets. This assistance is provided through Baitul mall wa Tamwil (BMT)

Whereas the qardul hasan approach is interest-free assistance given to small traders around the Nganjuk Regency. This process is released by the presence of program supervision from the Nganjuk Regency Amil Zakat Agency. They are tasked with crosschecking before and after giving assistance and not only that, because they have a network until the Kelurahan, of course this will be easier.

In general, the utilization of zakat is realized in the form of economic business development, human resource development, and consumptive assistance. This effort is nothing but to break the poverty chain in Nganjuk Regency.

 

CONCLUSION

Based on the results and previous discussion, it can be concluded that the mechanism for distributing productive zakat funds at the National Zakat Amil Agency (BAZNAS) in Nganjuk Regency is classified into four forms; first consumptive-traditional, second consumptive-creative, third productive-traditional, fourth creative-productive. In the third and fourth forms this is often called productive zakat. Distribution in the form of productive goods and the provision of money for business capital originating from the collection of zakat funds provided by the Amil Zakat Agency for the poor, this is done so that the concerned can be more independent and able to develop their business.

The existence of the Nganjuk Regency National Amil Zakat Agency (BAZNAS) in the management of zakat is quite beneficial for the community, especially the people of Nganjuk Regency. The presence of the Nganjuk Regency Amil Zakat Agency (BAZNAS) is gradually able to reduce social problems and increasingly complex poverty, especially those in the lower middle class, so as to develop a strong and professional business minded society. The role of the Nganjuk Regency Zakat Agency (BAZNAS) in the effort to empower the economic community can be seen from several programs including: the economic development of the people through the empowerment of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs). Mentoring to mustahik as local small entrepreneurs to be able to be independent, develop and not get involved in loan debt from mobile banks or loan sharks. With this, the Amil Zakat Agency of Nganjuk Regency has proven that public trust is growing with the management of zakat which is getting better. 

 

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