DISERTASI dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM, 2010

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

Improving the Ability of English Department Students of Kanjuruhan University Malang in Writing Descriptive Essays through PREMORA (Pre-writing Monitored Reading-Activities). (Thesis)

Muhammad Aliv Faizal

Abstrak


Based on the findings from the preliminary study, the content quality of the descriptive essays of the fourth semester students of English Department of Kanjuruhan Univeristy Malang was insufficient. It was identified that the cause of the problem was the inadequacy of the students' background knowledge on the topic to be described. The insufficiency of background knowledge was seemingly solvable through exposing the students to sufficient reading. The researcher planned to overcome the problem by implementing a strategy under the umbrella of reading-writing connection namely PREMORA (Pre-writing Monitored Reading-Activities) to improve the content quality of the students' descriptive essays.

This study employed Collaborative Classroom Action Research design. The researcher worked together with the class teacher as a collaborator in designing the lesson plans, implementing the action, observing the action, and making reflection. This study was carried out in one cycle. The cycle consisted of three meetings. The first meeting focused on prewriting activities, the second meeting focused on drafting and revising, and the third meeting focused on editing and publishing.

The subjects of the study were 32 fourth semester students of English Department of Kanjuruhan University Malang. The data of the study were taken from the observation checklists, field notes, and the students' final product on writing descriptive essays.

The research shows that the implementation of PREMORA improved the content quality of the students' descriptive essays. In the preliminary study, 56.25% of the students' scores in terms of content quality dominated level POOR. It was expected that after the study at least 60% of the students scored on level FAIR. After implementing PREMORA, the score of the students' content quality in writing descriptive essays increased to level FAIR within the percentage of 78.12% by rater 1 and 68.75% by rater 2. The score from both raters passed the targeted score 60% on level FAIR. To prove the scoring objectivity of both raters, it was utilized inter rater reliability measurement through Pearson Product Moment. It was found that the reliability value was 0.803873 simplified to 804. This reliability value is considered high (Djiwandono, 2008). In other words, PREMORA successfully improved the students' ability in writing descriptive essays.

Out of the entire 17 steps in the process writing approach in this study, PREMORA existed from step number 4 to 11. They are : (4) introducing PREMORA to the students including the explaining them the purpose of PREMORA, (5) displaying the students how to work with PREMORA including displaying the students the completed PREMORA form, (6) deciding a topic for the students to describe, (7) distributing the students the PREMORA form, (8) ordering the students to find the related sources to read, (9) prompting the students to read the sources, (10) encouraging the students to complete/fulfill the PREMORA form, (11) asking the students to write their draft based on the information collected in the PREMORA form from reading the sources. The students were asked to first write the thesis statement, and then support the thesis statement with some supporting details. The students used the collected data in the PREMORA from to support the details of their descriptive essays.

Teachers of English writing are suggested using PREMORA to improve the content quality of their students' writing. Future researchers are encouraged to utilize PREMORA in improving the students' ability in writing other types of texts.

Abstrak:

Kata Kunci: kemampuan menulis, PREMORA

 

Berdasarkan temuan temuan di preliminary study, kualitas isi dari karangan deskriptif mahasiswa pendidikan bahasa Inggris Universitas Kanjuruhan Malang belumlah mencukupi. Diidentifikasikan bahwa penyebabnya adalah kurangnya pengetahuan siswa akan topik yang dideskripsikan. Kurangnya pengetahuan tersebut kemungkinan bisa diatasi dengan menghadapkan siswa pada banyak kegiatan membaca. Peneliti berencana mengatasi masalah tersebut dengan menerapkan strategy berdasarkan logika hubungan membaca dan menulis yaitu PREMORA (Pre-writing Monitored Reading-Activities) guna meningkatkan kualitas isi karangan deskriptif siswa.

Bentuk penelitian ini adalah penelitian tindakan kelas kolaborasi. Peneliti bekerja sama dengan guru kelas sebagai rekan dalam menyusun rencana pembelajaran, menerapkan pengajaran, mengamati pengajaran, dan melakukan refleksi. Pembelajaran ini diterapkan dalam satu siklus. Siklus tersebut terdiri atas tiga pertemuan. Pertemuan pertama ditekankan pada kegiatan pre-writing, pertemuan kedua dikhususkan untuk kegiatan drafting dan revising, dan pertemuan ketiga digunakan untuk kegiatan editing dan publishing.

Subyek penelitian ini adalah 32 mahasiswa pendidikan bahasa inggris Universitas Kanjuruhan Malang semester empat. Datanya diambil menggunakan observation checklists, field notes, dan dari nilai akhir karangan deskriptif siswa.

Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa penerapan PREMORA mampu meningkatkan kualitas isi karangan deskriptif siswa. Di preliminary study, 56.25% siswa mendapatkan nilai POOR pada kualitas isi karangan deskriptif mereka. Diharapkan setelah penerapan PREMORA, minimal 60% siswa mendapatkan nilai FAIR pada kualitas isi. Setelah penerapan PREMORA, didapati jumlah siswa yang mendapatkan nilai FAIR mencapai 78.12% siswa berdasakan penilai 1 dan 68.75% menurut penilai 2. Nilai dari kedua penilai telah mencapai nilai yang ditargetkan yaitu minimal 60% siswa mencapai nilai FAIR. Untuk membuktikan objektifitas penilaian kedua penilai, digunakanlah reabilitas inter rater menggunakan Pearson Product Moment. Didapatkan bahwa tingkat realibilitasnya adalah 0.803873 yang disederhanakan menjadi 804. Nilai reliabilitas ini tergolong tinggi (Djiwandono, 2008). Dengan kata lain, PREMORA berhasil meningkatkan kualitas isi karangan deskriptif siswa.

Dari ke17 langkah pendekatan process writing dalam penelitian ini, PREMORA terdapat di langkah ke empat hingga ke sebelas. Langkah-tersebut adalah (4) memperkenalkan PREMORA kepada siswa berikut menjelaskan tujuan menggunakan PREMORA, (5) menunjukkan siswa bagaimana menggunakan PREMORA termasuk bagaimana bekerja dengan PREMORA form, (6) menentukan topik untuk dibuat karangan deskriptif bagi siswa, (7) membagikan PREMORA form kepada siswa, (8) meminta siswa mencari informasi terkait dengan topik untuk dibaca, (9) memerintakan siswa untuk membaca bacaan terkait dengan topik, (10) meminta siswa mengisi PREMORA formnya, (11) meminta siswa menulis karangan awal sesuai informasi yang mereka dapatkan dari bacaan yang sudah mereka catat di PREMORA form. Catatan dalam PREMORA form itu membantu mereka memperkaya informasi yang mereka tulis di karangan deskriptif mereka.

Pengajar menulis bahasa inggris disarankan menggunakan PREMORA guna meningkatkan kualitas isi karangan deskriptif siswa. Peneliti berikutnya disilahkan menggunakan PREMORA guna meningkatkan kemampuan menulis siswa pada jenis karangan yang lain.