DISERTASI dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM, 2010

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

Kajian latar belakang pendidikan, kultur sekolah, persepsi, sikap, motivasi intrinsik, dan kesadaran metakognitif guru serta dampaknya thd implementasi paradigma belajar pembelajaran IPA-biologi:studi empiris sekolah binaan MBE-USAID Jateng. (Disertsi)

Andreas Priyono Budi Prasetyo

Abstrak


Usaha peningkatan mutu pendidikan IPA Sekolah Dasar, termasuk didalamnya Biologi (IPA-Biologi) melalui berbagai pelatihan guru pada dasarnya adalah usaha penerapan paradigma alternatif pembelajaran, suatu cara pandang baru tentang hakikat pembelajaran. Pembelajaran tidak lagi dimaknai sebagai usaha guru mengajar atau memberi ilmu kepada siswa (teaching paradigm), tetapi lebih merupakan usaha menciptakan proses belajar bagi siswa (learning paradigm). Sekalipun guru sering dilatih, umumnya guru kembali kepada paradigma lama yaitu paradigma mengajar. Masih sedikit informasi bahwa guru menerapkan paradigma belajar bagi peningkatan mutu belajar siswa.

Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengkaji hubungan kasualitas (dampak) faktor-faktor yang berpengaruh terhadap implementasi paradigma belajar yaitu latar belakang pendidikan guru, kultur sekolah yang dirasakan guru, persepsi, sikap, motivasi intrinsik, dan kesadaran metakognitif guru. Jenis penelitian adalah penelitian non-eksperimental dan konfirmatoris. Paradigma belajar diterjemahkan sebagai praktik pembelajaran yang mengaktifkan, kreatif, efektif, menyenangkan (PAKEM). Salah satu lembaga donor yang membantu implementasi PAKEM di Jawa Tengah adalah proyek Managing Basic Education (MBE)-USAID periode 2003-2007.

Populasi adalah semua guru (458 orang) yang mengajar di kelas III, IV, V, dan VI di SD/MI binaan MBE-USAID dari kabupaten Pati, Semarang, Kota Magelang, Purworejo, Sukoharjo, Kebumen, Purbalingga dan Banyumas. Sampel penelitian adalah sebagian guru (187 orang) yang mengajar di sekolah-sekolah binaan MBE-USAID di kabupaten Purbalingga, Banyumas dan Pati. Teknik pengambilan sampel dilakukan secara random. Data latar belakang pendidikan dihimpun dengan instrumen angket. Kultur sekolah diukur dengan scaling pengukuran psikologi yang terdiri atas 39 item pernyataan. Persepsi diukur dengan scaling pengukuran psikologi yang terdiri atas 40 item. Sikap diukur dengan scaling pengukuran psikologi yang terdiri atas 39 item. Motivasi intrinsik diukur dengan scaling pengukuran psikologi yang terdiri atas 51 item yang dikembangkan dari Instrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI). Kesadaran Metakognitif diukur dengan scaling pengukuran psikologi yang terdiri atas 49 item yang dikembangkan dari Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI). Implementasi PAKEM IPA diukur dengan kuesioner yang tersusun atas 20 pertanyaan ketrampilan generik guru, 60 pertanyaan PAKEM IPA-Biologi pada materi mahluk hidup dan proses kehidupan kelas III, IV, V dan VI, dan 13 pernyataan aspek senang dalam PAKEM IPA-Biologi. Validitas instrumen diuji dengan analisis butir (corrected item-total correlation) dari Reliability Analysis program SPSS for Windows 16. Reliabilitas instrumen ditetapkan melalui uji α Alpha Cronbach pada Reliability Analysis program SPSS for Windows 16. Uji validitas dan reliabilitas instrumen menunjukkan bahwa semua instrumen menunjukkan validitas dan reliabilitas tinggi.

Analisis data dilakukan dengan statistik deskriptif dan inferensial. Analisis data deskriptif dilakukan dengan crosstab (tabulasi silang) bantuan program komputer SPSS for windows 16. Analisis statistik inferensial (uji hipotesis) dilakukan dengan analisis model regresi linier berganda dan analisis jalur (path analysis) dengan program aplikasi SPSS for Windows 16.

Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa jumlah guru dengan latar belakang pendidikan yang baik 39,6%, dengan kultur sekolah yang kondusif 39,6%, dengan persepsi positif 34,8%, sikap positif 41,2% dan kesadaran metakognitif kuat 41,7%. Hasil pengujian hipotesis menunjukkann latar belakang pendidikan, kultur sekolah, persepsi, sikap, motivasi intrinsik, dan kesadaran metakognitif secara simultan berdampak langsung signifikan terhadap tingkat implementasi PAKEM IPA-Biologi (F 4,389, p 0,000). Secara parsial,latar belakang pendidikan guru berdampak langsung signifikan pada tingkat penerapan PAKEM IPA-Biologi (Py1 0,149, p 0,039). Secara parsial, analisis model stepwise menunjukkan sikap dan motivasi intrinsik berdampak langsung signifikan terhadap implementasi PAKEM IPA-Biologi. Analisis jalur menunjukkan bahwa latar belakang pendidikan berdampak langsung signifikan terhadap tingkat penerapan PAKEM, kultur sekolah berdampak pada kesadaran metakognitif (P62 = 0,458, p = 0,000), kultur sekolah, persepsi dan sikap secara simultan berdampak signifikan terhadap motivasi intrinsik (F =154,139 p = 0,000). Besar sumbangan model regresi linier berganda 12,8 % yang berarti bahwa tingkat penerapan PAKEM IPA-Biologi dapat diprediksi oleh variabel-variabel latar belakang pendidkan, kultur sekolah, persepsi, sikap, motivasi intrinsik dan kesadaran metakognitif, sebesar 12,8%.

Berdasarkan temuan penelitian, disarankan bahwa program pelatihan guru pada mata pelajaran IPA-Biologi perlu berfokus pada penerapan paradigma belajar (PAKEM) dan diintesifkan pengelolaannya untuk mendukung ketercapaian standar proses pembelajaran (PP No 19 Tahun 2005). Keberlanjutan suatu program pelatihan guru (sustainability) perlu mengintegrasikan faktor-faktor disposisi guru dan faktor eksternal lainnya, oleh sebab itu disarankan ketersediaan dukungan, fasilitas, dan kebijakan-kebijakan yang mendukung PAKEM perlu disediakan oleh pengambil kebijakan pendidikan.

Abstract:

Keywords: learning paradigm of biology teaching, educational background, school culture, perception, attitude, intrinsic motivation, metacognitive awareness

In Indonesia science teacher in-service trainings has been implemented as one of the most prospective strategies for improving the quality of science teaching and learning. The fundamental mission of this science teacher training, including biology, is the introduction of learning paradigm for science teaching, a new paradigm of teaching for most primary school teachers. Teaching science is no longer seen as merely transferring of facts/knowlege, but as creating more learning opportunities in science for students. Although a significant number of primary school teachers were already well-trained yet, they were more likely to return to their old paradigm of teaching (teaching paradigm). There is little evidence that they implemented what they already learned from in-service trainings for better science teaching.

This research aimed to investigate some probable causal relationships among such major suspicious variables as teachers'educational backgrounds, school culture, perception, attitude, intrinsic motivation, metacognitive awareness and the implementation of learning paradigm of science teaching at targeted primary schools of MBE-USAID projects 2003-2007 in Central Java. Learning paradigm of science teaching has been translated into teachers' practice of active, creative, effective and joyful learning in science (PAKEM). This research was classified as confirmatory and non-experimental research, focusing on studying the impact of those major variables upon the implementation of primary biology science teaching under the learning paradigm of teaching.

The research was conducted at the target primary schools of Central Java MBE-USAID projects 2003-2007 across Pati, Semarang, Magelang, Purworejo, Kebumen, Sukoharjo, Purbalingga dan Banyumas districts. Population was a number of 458 primary school teachers of grade 3 - 6. Pati, Purbalingga and Banyumas were randomly selected as location of research districts. Approximately 187 teachers and 935 students from Banyumas, Purbalingga and Pati participated in this research as respondents/informers. They were randomly selected from population. Teachers were the informers or respondents of data about educational background, perception, attitude, intrinsic motivation, metacognitive awareness, and PAKEM implementation. Students were the informers for PAKEM biology science implementation.

Questionnaires were administered to collect data of teachers' educational backgrounds. Teachers' school culture was measured by 39 psychological scaling items. Perception of PAKEM was measured by 39 scaling items. Teachers' attitude was measured by 40 scaling items. Intrinsic motivation items (51) were developed from IMI (Intrinsic Motivation Inventory). Metacognitive awareness was measured by 49 MAI items (Metacognitive Awareness Inventory). The implementation of PAKEM biology science teaching was assessed by 20 generic teaching skills questions, 60 biology science teaching problems, and 13 scaling items of joyfulness of teaching. All research instruments were already empirically validated from try-out with 200 teachers. Statistical validity and reliability of instruments were tested by reliability analysis of SPSS for windows version 16. All instruments were statistically valid and reliable. Data was then elaborated by the crosstab analyses under SPSS version 16. The test of hypotheses was conducted by path analyses and multiple linear regression models, supported by SPSS for Windows version 16.

The research findings showed only 39,6% primary school teachers (total 187) had good educational background, 39,6% teachers experienced a strong conducive school culture, 34,% teachers show strong positive perception and attitude (41,2%), and 41,7% teachers showed their strong metacognitive awareness. The findings also showed that teachers' educational background, school culture, perception, attitude, intrinsic motivation, and metacognitive awareness all together had significantly an impact on the implementation of PAKEM biology science teaching (F 4,389, p 0,000). Simultaneous contribution of those variables toward PAKEM implementation was 12,8% (R2 0,128). Instead of teachers' educational background, such other variables as school culture, perception, attitude, metacognitive awareness did not partially have an impact on the implementation of PAKEM (learning paradigm of science teaching). Path Analysis indicated that teachers' educational background had directly an impact on the implementation of PAKEM (Py1 0,149, p 0,039); school cultures had significantly an impact onteachers'metacognitive awareness (P62 = 0,458, p = 0,000); school culture, teachers' perception and attitude had simultaneously an impact on intrinsic motivations (F =154,139 p = 0,000).

It is suggested that science teacher in-service trainings be focused on learning paradigm of teaching and better managed to strengthen the implementation of teaching-learning standards as recommended by Government Decree 19, 2005. Since the implementation of the learning paradigm can not be strongly predicted by teachers' dispositional factors (perception, attitude, intrinsic motivation, metacognitive awareness) but also by their external forces, it is recommended that biology science teacher trainings be better managed by the integration of teachers'educational background, school culture, disposition dan external supports.