DISERTASI dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM, 2010

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

Struktur Atributif Frasa Bahasa Indonesia.

Heny Sulistyowati

Abstrak


Atributif merupakan konstituen penjelas yang menerangkan nomina dalam frasa nominal, frasa verbal, frasa ajektival atau kelas kata lain yang mempunyai fungsi menjelaskan. Letak atribut dapat berada di sebelah kiri inti, di sebelah kanan inti atau mengapit inti.

Berdasarkan hal tersebut, penelitian struktur atributif frasa bahasa Indonesia penting dilakukan karena didasarkan alasan: (1) untuk mengetahui bermacam-macam fungsi atributif frasa, (2) untuk mengetahui distribusi unsur-unsur atributif setiap frasa, dan (3) untuk mengetahui hubungan makna struktur atributif setiap frasa. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini bertujuan memperoleh deskripsi tentang: (1) fungsi atributif frasa bahasa Indonesia yang meliputi: (a) fungsi atributif frasa nominal, (b) fungsi atributif frasa verbal, dan (c) fungsi atributif frasa ajektival, (2) distribusi unsur atributif frasa bahasa Indonesia yang meliputi: (a) distribusi unsur atributif frasa nominal, (b) distribusi unsur atributif frasa verbal, dan (c) distribusi unsur atributif frasa ajektival, dan (3) hubungan makna struktur atributif frasa bahasa Indonesia yang meliputi: (a) hubungan makna struktur atributif frasa nominal, (b) hubungan makna struktur atributif frasa verbal, dan (c) hubungan makna struktur atributif frasa ajektival

Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif. Wujud data penelitian berupa wacana teks tulis yang diperoleh melalui teknik perekaman. Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan kajian distribusional. Prosedur analisis data dilakukan melalui empat tahap kegiatan, yaitu (1) pengumpulan data, (2) pereduksian data, (3) penyajian data, dan (4) penyimpulan temuan penelitian dan verifikasi.

Hasil penelitian struktur atributif frasa dalam bahasa Indonesia ini meliputi: fungsi atributif frasa bahasa Indonesia, distribusi atributif frasa bahasa Indonesia, dan hubungan makna atributif frasa bahasa Indonesia.

Fungsi atributif frasa bahasa Indonesia yang ditemukan meliputi: fungsi atributif frasa nominal, fungsi atributif frasa verbal, dan fungsi atributif frasa ajektival. Fungsi atributif frasa nominal berpola: (a) I(N)+A(N), (b) I(N)+ A(V), (c) I(N)+A(partikula, konjungsi), (d) I(N)+A(numeralia), dan (e) I(N)+ A(Aj.). Fungsi atributif frasa verbal berpola: (a) A(V)+I(V), (b) I(V)+A(Aj.), (c) I(V)+A (konjungsi), dan (d) I(V)+A(modal/aspek). Fungsi atributif frasa ajektival meliputi: ajektiva bertaraf dan ajektiva tidak bertaraf. Fungsi atributif frasa ajektival bertaraf berpola: (a) I+A, (b)A+I, (c) A+I+A, dan (d) A+A+I. Fungsi atributif frasa ajektival tidak bertaraf berpola: (a) A+I, (b) A+pengingkar (A)+I, c) A1+I+I+A2, dan (d) A+I+yang+A+I.

            Distribusi atributif frasa dalam bahasa Indonesia yang ditemukan meliputi: distribusi atributif frasa nominal, distribusi atributif frasa verbal, dan distribusi atributif frasa ajektival. Distribusi atributif frasa nominal meliputi: post atributif nominal dan pre atributif nominal. Distribusi atributif post atributif nominal berpola: (a) N1+N2, (b) N+A, (c) N+V, (d) N+pronomina persona, dan (e) N+pronomina demonstrativa. Distribusi atributif pre atributif nominal berpola: (a) N2+N1,dan (b) kata sandang+N. Distribusi atributif frasa verbal meliputi: post atributif verbal dan pre atributif verbal. Distribusi post atributif verbal berpola: (a) V+A, dan (b) V+frasa konjungsi. Distribusi pre atributif verbal berpola: (a) V1+V2, (b) aspek/modal+V, dan (c) pengingkar+V. Distribusi atributif frasa ajektival meliputi: post atributif ajektival dan pre atributif ajektival. Distribusi post atributif ajektival berpola: (a) A1+A2 dan (b) Aj.+N. Distribusi pre atributif ajektival berpola: (a) pengingkar+ajektival dan (b) perbandingan+ajektiva.

Hubungan makna atributif frasa dalam bahasa Indonesia yang ditemukan dalam wacana naratif meliputi hubungan makna atributif frasa nominal, hubungan makna atributif frasa verbal, dan hubungan makna atributif frasa ajektival. Hubungan makna atributif frasa nominal menyatakan makna: (a) penerang, (b) pembatas, (c) penentu/penunjuk, (d) jumlah, dan (e) sebutan. Hubungan makna struktur atributif frasa verbal menyatakan makna : (a) kemungkinan, (b) kemampuan, (c) kepastian, (d) keinginan, (e) kesediaan, (f) keharusan, dan (g) keizinan. Hubungan makna atributif frasa ajektival menyatakan makna: (a) negatif, (b) tingkatan, (c) penentu sifat, (d) ukuran, (e) warna, (f) waktu, (g) jarak, (h) sikap batin, dan (i) cerapan.

Hasil penelitian ini mempunyai implikasi teoretis dan praktis. Secara teoretis dapat meningkatkan kompetensi kebahasaan secara komprehensif dan menyeluruh. Secara praktis dapat dijadikan bahan kajian kompetensi kebahasaan dan kompetensi kemampuan berbahasa.

 

Abstract:

Keywords: attributive structure, phrase

The research on attributive structure of Indonesian phrase is important to conduct because of some reasons: (1) to know the variety functions of attributive structure, (2) to know the distribution of attributive structure in each phrase, and (3) to know the relation of attributive structure meaning in each phrase. Thus, this research aims at having description of (1) attributive structure of Indonesian phase correlating with (a) attributive structure of adjective phrase, (b) attributive structure of verbal phrase, and (c) attributive structure of nominal phrase, (2) distribution of attributive structure correlating with (a) distribution of attributive structure of adjective phrase (b) distribution of attributive of verbal phrase (c) distribution of attributive structure of nominal phrase, and (3) relational meaning of attributive structure correlating with (a) relational meaning of attributive structure of adjective phrase, (b) relational meaning of attributive structure of verbal phrase, and (c) relational meaning of attributive structure of nominal phrase.

This research employs structural research design. The data of this research are written-text discourse obtained from recording. Data were analyzed by using critical linguistics study. Procedures of data analysis were done through four stages, namely data collection, data reduction, data display and conclusions of research findings.

The findings showed that attributive structure of Indonesian in narrative discourse viewed from (1) function of attributive structure of nominal phrase found as the following: I(N)+A(N), I (N)+ A (V), I(N) + particular, conjunction, I(N)+A(numerallia), (2) function of attributive structure of verbal phrase found as the following: A(V)+I(V), I(V)+A(Aj.), I+(V)+A(conjunction), A(preposition)+A(helping verb)+I(V), and (3) function of attributive structure of adjective phrase found as the following, first: structured adjective I+A, A+I , A+I+A, A+A+I, second: Unstructured adjective A+I, A+lier(A)+I, A1+I+I+A2, A+I+yang+A+I.

Findings from distribution of phrase attributive structure of Indonesian in narrative discourse viewed from (1) distribution of attributive structure of nominal phrase found as the following. First, post attributive nominal with the distribution: N1+N2, N+A, N+V, N+prepositional phrase, N+Personal pronoun, and N+demonstrative pronoun, and second, pre attributive nominal with the distribution N2+N1, and determinative+N, (2) distribution of attributive structure of verbal phrase found as the following. First, post attributive verbal with distribution: V+A, V+preposition, and V+conjunction, and second, pre attributive verbal with distribution: V1 +V2, aspect/modal+V, and lier+V. (3) distribution of attributive structure of adjective phrase found as the following. First, post attributive adjective with distribution: A1+A2 and Aj.+N, second, pre attributive adjective with distribution: lier+adjective and comparison+adjective.

Findings of relational meaning of attributive structure of Indonesian phrase in narrative discourse viewed from (1) relational meaning of attributive structure of Indonesian phrase in narrative discourse viewed from (1) relational meaning of attributive structure of verbal phrase stating the variety meaning can be classified as, first, stating possibility meaning, second, stating ability meaning, third, stating certainty meaning, fourth, stating willingness meaning, fifth, stating readiness meaning, sixth, stating obligatory meaning, and seventh, stating permission meaning. (2) relational meaning of attributive structure of nominal phrase stating the meaning: equality, explainer, border, determiner, number and title. (3) relational meaning of attributive structure of adjective phrase stating meaning: (a) negative, (b) levels, (c) determining the nature, (d) size, (e) color, (f) time, (g) distance, (h) the attitude of mind, and (i) perception.
 The results of this study have theoretical and practical implications. Theoretically can improve linguistic competence in a comprehensive and thorough. In practical terms can be used as linguistic competency assessment and competency proficiency.