DISERTASI dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM, 2019

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

Modeling the Relationships of Reading Motivation and Reading Amount with Reading Comprehension of the EFL Students.

PAR LEONARDUS

Abstrak


ABSRACT

Par, Leonardus. 2019. Modeling the Relationships of Reading Motivation and Reading Amount with Reading Comprehension of the EFL Students.Dissertation, the English Language Education Program, Graduate School, State University of Malang. Advisors: (I) Prof. M. Adnan Latief, M.A., Ph.D. (II) Dr. Suharmanto, M. Pd. (III) Dr. Sri Rachmajanti, Dip. TESL., M. Pd.

Keywords: Intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, reading amount, reading comprehension, EFL students, SEM. 

Reading motivation, both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation have been considered as crucial affective factors in contributing the students’ frequency and length of time in reading activities (reading amount) and the development of their reading comprehension. This study aims at modeling the relationships of reading motivation: intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation on reading amount and reading comprehension of the EFL students at the university level.

The accessible sample of the study was 285 students at university level spread at three different universities in Indonesia: STKIP St. Paul, Flores, NTT, UniversitasBrawijaya, and Universitas Islam Malang (UNISMA). The students were from the English language education program who passed all reading courses required by the curriculum: Reading 1, Reading 2, Reading 3, and Extensive Reading. The data were the students’ scores on reading motivation, reading amount and reading comprehension which were obtained from Motivation for Reading Questionnaire (MRQ), Reading Amount Scale (RAS) and Reading Comprehension Test (CRT). As the research instruments, MRQ was used to gain the data relating to the students’ responses on their intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in reading English materials, RAS was utilized to obtain the data about their frequency and length of time in reading, and RCT was developed and administered to get the data about their reading comprehension. The data were primarily analyzed by utilizing SPSS version 24 and AMOS version 23 to answer the general hypothesis stating that the EFL students’ intrinsic and extrinsic motivations directly or indirectly have a significant relationshipwith their reading amount and reading comprehension.

The results of the analysis reveal that EFL students possess both intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation in reading English materials. The EFL students have a multifaceted construct of reading motivations to achieve their needs and goals in reading activities. Moreover, the EFL students’ intrinsic motivation indirectly contributes to reading comprehension through reading amount. Meanwhile, their extrinsic motivation directly contributes to their reading comprehension. Relating to the role of the reading amount as a mediating variable in the model, the study discovers that reading amount plays different roles in mediating the relationships of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations with reading comprehension. On the one hand, the reading amount plays a full or complete mediation role in mediating the relationship between intrinsic motivation and reading comprehension. On the other hand, the reading amount does not carry a mediation role in the relationship between extrinsic motivation and reading comprehension. This indicates that intrinsic motivation contributes to reading comprehension merely through reading amount, however, extrinsic motivation contributes to reading comprehension without mediation or it directly contributes to reading comprehension.The finding of the study confirms the previous model proposed by Dhanapala&Hirakawa

 (2015) showing that the university students possess the multidimensional reading motivation: both intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. Moreover, from the hypothetical model which categorized attitudes toward recognition, social sharing of reading, compliance, negative affective attitudes, and attitudes toward grades are part of extrinsic motivation construct; the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) did not confirm them. Instead, there were only three indicators as part of extrinsic motivation construct: attitudes toward recognition, social sharing of reading, and attitudes toward grades as valid indicators measuring extrinsic motivation construct. Furthermore, based on the CFA, utility value of reading, the positive behavior of reading, curiosityand involvement, and challenge for reading are valid indicators measuring intrinsic motivation.

Thus, the study concludes that if the students have a high intrinsic motivation to read in English, they tend to read more and more and in turn, develop their reading comprehension. Meanwhile, if the students have a high extrinsic motivation to read in English, their reading comprehension tends to go higher.

The findings of the study pedagogically imply that the EFL students should not be labeled as either motivated or not motivated to read. Instead, they are motivated to read for different purposes and needs. Accordingly, the teachers or lectures should encourage the students by creating and providing various reading exposure or reading experience, inside or outside the classroom, to arouse their both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to read. The teachers or lectures should maximize the role of reading courses, like Reading

1, Reading

2, Reading

3, and Extensive Reading as the opportunities to encourage the students developing their reading motivation, reading amount, and reading comprehension.