DISERTASI dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM, 2010

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

Improving the Listening Skills of Second Semester Students of English Department of Kanjuruhan University Malang through “The Discovery Listening Technique” Using Podcast. (Thesis)

Luqman Baehaqi

Abstrak


The teaching of listening that merely emphasized on testing listening rather than teaching how to listen had practically held up the second semester students of English Department of Kanjuruhan University Malang from proper listening comprehension and learning participation. Lack of language proficiency involving vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammar affected their ability to recognize words and their meanings in communicative use.

To overcome these classroom problems, the process-based approach underlying Discovery Listening Technique combined with podcast, the internet-based listening material was applied in collaborative action research. This research was intended to know how the technique using podcast can improve listening skill of the students. The technique required the students to realize causes of their listening problems in order to find out appropriate way of improving listening comprehension. The listening skill that was specifically improved was the ability of recognizing words and their meaning in contextual use because it touched the basis of listening comprehension skill in general. It gave balance between focus on form and attention on meaning.

The research findings showed the positive improvement of both achievement and activity involvement in the majority of the students. The achievement gain of the students displayed positive results as indicated by the increase of mean score which was 62 in the preliminary study and steadily increased 72 in Cycle 1 and reached 79 in Cycle 2, revealing that twenty six (72%) of the students scored above average of 75 out 100 points. In regard with the students' participation in the teaching and learning process in the two cycles of the research, the analysis of observation, field notes, and questionnaire data demonstrated positive results in that the students participate more active during the teaching and learning process.

The improvement of the listening skills could be seen through the process based approach underlying Discovery Listening technique which encompassed three stages; training, practicing and reflecting stages. In the training stage, the students were introduced to promote their language proficiency by practicing the following activities; 1) activating schemata; listening texts were easily understood when prior knowledge was known, 2) listening text for gist; specific instruction on general gist of text focused listener on contextual meaning rather than merely form, 3) confirming comprehension on the text; enthusiast contribution encouraged positive achievement and constructive competition 4) finding out sources of listening difficulties realized during listening; the search increased metacognitive awareness, 5) listening to segmented clauses and sentences of the text where the cause of listening problems found in detail; consciousness on the language features focused listener on form 6) reproducing the segmented expressions spoken by native speakers; expressive imitation enhanced their language proficiency. In the light of this stage, the playing of podcast might be repeated according to the students' search t of the source of listening difficulty in order to familiarize the students with the language in communicative use.

In the practicing stage, the students performed the tasks mentioned in Discovery Listening worksheet guiding them to the understanding of listening process occurred in their minds, 1) listening for gist of text without note taking; it forced the students to understand a whole text using their background knowledge, 2) self-assessing comprehension level; it improved metacognitive awareness, 3) writing down of listening comprehension; confirmation of comprehension in written form improved language proficiency of grammar and meaning of words by using contextual clue, 4) listening to segmented clauses and sentences of the text by making use of individual note taking; the focus on form encouraged them to listen in a more narrowed context of text, 5) reconstructing text based on the individual notes; in a group, the students were cooperated to match their own comprehension with other friends, 6) comparing the reconstructed text with the original one; noticing differences of language features in the text and matching them with their own perception enhanced , 7) discovering sources of listening difficulties and writing the reasons of miscomprehension; metacognitive awareness enhanced listening performance. The listening text from podcast was supposed to be played and segmented after the explanation of contextual clue to avoid the students from noticing and reconstructing text without understanding the meaning. The reflecting stage encouraged the students to reflect on the activities they had conducted by pooling knowledge about aspects of teaching and learning and before closing of the lesson, the students listened to a short podcast for refreshment and encouragement.

To conclude, the students of low level proficiency as the majority group in the class had demonstrated positive improvement of achievement and learning participation within six meetings but not for the high proficient students who looked less enthusiasm in the second cycle of the research due to their boredom on repetitive strategies and of less challenge. The use of podcast, in the same direction, had successfully enhanced the teaching and learning efficiency and interest of the students for more extensive listening. For further recommendation, development of appropriate procedure of Discovery Listening technique in another action research can be conducted with the diversity of listening microskills and variety of challenges for different level of proficiency in order to reduce boredom while experimental research can compare the effectiveness of this technique to others in the improvement of EFL learners' listening comprehension.

 

Abstrak:

Kata kunci: Keahlian menyimak, Teknik Discovery Listening, podcast, pendekatan berbasis proses.

Pengajaran listening yang sekedar menekankan pada uji pendengaran daripada mengajarkan bagaima cara menyimak, pada praktiknya, telah menghambat kemampuan pemahaman menyimak dan partsipasi antusias belajar mahasiswa semester dua jurusan pendidikan bahasa Inggris di Universitas Kanjuruhan Malang. Kurangnya pengetahuan berbahasa yang meliputi keterbatasan kosakata, tata bahasa, pengucapan, mempengaruhi kemampuan mereka mengenali kata dan maknanya dalam konteks penggunaan komunikatif.

Pendekatan berbasis proses yang menjadi acuan Teknik Discovery Listening dipadukan dengan podcast, materi menyimak berbasis Internet diterapkan dalam penelitan tindakan kolaboratif ini. Penelitian tindakan ini dilaksanakan untuk mengetahui bagaimana cara meningkatkan kemampuan menyimak dengan menggunakan Teknik Discovery Listening dipadukan dengan podcast. Teknik tersebut mengarahkan mahasiswa untuk menyadari penyebab kesulitan mereka dalam listening kemudian menemukan cara meningkatkan kemampuan menyimak. Kemampuan yang ditingkatkan secara spesifik adalah kemampuan mengenali kata dan maknanya dalam konteks penggunaan karena kemampuan inilah dasar kemampuan pemahaman menyimak secara umum.

Temuan penelitian menunjukkan adanya peningkatan positif pada prestasi dan keterlibatan belajar sebagian besar mahasiswa. Prestasi mahasiswa diindikasikan melalui meningkatnya skor nilai rataan yang berada pada posisi 62 pada studi awal yang secara bertahap meningkat menjadi 72 pada putaran pertama dan mencapai 78 di putaran kedua, menunjukkan bahwa tujuh puluh dua persen mahasiswa mendapat nilai diatas 75. Terkait dengan partisipasi mereka dalam proses belajar mengajar pada 2 putaran penelitian, analisis data observasi, catatan lapangan dan angket respon menunjukkan hasil positif bahwa siswa terlibat aktif dalam pembelajaran.

Peningkatan kemampuan menyimak dapat dilihat melalui pendekatan berdasar proses melalui teknik Discovery Listening ini dibagi dalam 3 tahapan, tahap latihan, praktek dan refleksi. Tahap latihan bertujuan meningkatkan pengetahuan bahasa mahasiswa dalam konteks penggunaannya. Aktivitasnya sebagai berikut; 1) mengaktifkan ide yang berkaitan dengan teks yang akan didengar, 2) mendengar teks, dengan tujuan mendengar maksud teks secara umum, 3) menyampaikan pemahaman terhadap teks, 4) mendiskusikan kesulitan menyimak yang ditemukan saat menyimak, 5) menyimak potongan klausa dan kalimat yang menjadi sumber masalah secara mendetail, 6) melatih pengucapan potongan ungkapan tersebut melalui bantuan podcast. Pada tahap praktik, mahasiswa mengerjakan lembar kerja Discovery Listening secara individu dan bersama-sama dengan teman. Berdasar instruksi dalam lembar kerja, aktifitas mahasiswa adalah sebagaimana berikut; 1) menyimak teks untuk memahami teks secara umum tanpa mencatat, 2) menguji sendiri level pemahaman, 3) menuliskan maksud teks secara umum, 4) menyimak potongan klausa dan kalimat pendek sambil membuat catatan secara individu, 5) dalam kelompok, merekonstruksi teks tersebut berdasar catatan yang dibuat secara individu, 6) membandingkan teks rekonstruksi dengan teks asli, 7) menemukan sumber kesulitan menyimak serta mencari penyebab kesalahpemahaman. Pada tahap refleksi, mahasiswa mengevaluasi aktivitas belajar yang sudah dilakukan kemudian diakhir pelajaran, mahasiswa mendengarkan podcast singkat sebagai penyegar dan penambah semangat.

Kesimpulannya, siswa dengan kemampuan rendah yang menjadi mayoritas di kelas telah menunjukkan peningkatan positif prestasi dan partisipasi dalam 6 pertemuan tapi tidak bagi mahasiswa yang berkampuan tinggi yang tampak berkurang antusiasmenya pada putaran kedua pertemuan tersebut dikarenakan kebosanan pada kurangnya tantangan dalam teknik yang dimaksud. Penggunaan podcast, pada saat yang sama, meningkatkan efisiensi belajar mengajar dan minat mahasiswa untuk menyimak lebih sering. Sebagai saran, pengembangan procedure teknik Discovery Listening dalam penelitian tindakan mesti dilaksanakan dengan memperluas keahlian mikro listening untuk tingkat kebisaan yang lebih tinggi serta penelitian experiment untuk membandingkan efektifitas teknik ini dengan teknik yang lain dalam peningkatan kemampuan menyimak pembelajar bahasa Inggris.