DISERTASI dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM, 2019

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

Struktur cerita dan Edukatif dalam Buku Cerita Anak Pilihan Siswa Sekolah Dasar.

Rahmadina Rahmadina

Abstrak


RINGKASAN

Rahmadina. 2019. StrukturceritadanEdukatifdalamBukuCeritaAnakPilihanSiswaSekolahDasar. Tesis, JurusanPendidikanDasar, Program PascasarjanaUniversitasNegeri Malang.

Pembimbing: (1) Dr. MuakibatulHasanah, M. Pd., (2) Prof. Dr. HeriSuwignyo, M. Pd.,

Kata Kunci:strukturcerita,nilaiedukatif, bukuceritaanak

Maraknyapengimplementasiangerakanmembaca 15 menitpadasatuanpendidikan, khususnya di SekolahDasardalam program GerakanLiterasiSekolah (GLS) telah menuntut tersedia buku cerita anak yang bervariasisebab akandijadikanbahanbacaanuntuksiswa. Hal tersebut bukan hanya meningkatkanminatmembacasiswatapijugamampumerangsangsiswauntukmenanamkannilai-nilai yang terdapatpadabukubacaan yang siswabaca.

Fokuspenelitianinimengungkapkanstrukturceritadanedukatifdalambukuceritaanakmeliputi:

(1) strukturcerita yang terkandungdalambukuceritaanakdilihatdariunsurpembentukceritayaitualur, tokoh, latar, sudutpandang, dan tema

(2) nilaiedukatif yang terkandungdalambukuceritaanakdilihatdarinilai moral, religius, sosial, danbudaya.

Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian kualitatif dengan desaindeskriftif. Sumber data dalampenelitianiniadalah 18 bukuceritaanak yang terdapat ditigaperpustakaansekolahdasaryaitu SDN Percobaan 2, SDN Percobaan 1, dan MIN 1 Malang. Instrumenpenelitianiniberupapedomananalisisalur, tokoh, latar, sudutpandang, dantema serta pedoman analisis nilai edukatif. Teknikpengumpulan data dalampenelitianiniadalahkajiandokumentasi yang memanfaatkanbukuceritaanakpilihansiswasekolahdasar. Prosedurpengumpulan data dilakukandenganmengumpulkandanmenyeleksidata. Wujud data penelitianiniadalahpaparan verbal unsurintrinsikalur, tokoh, latar, sudutpandangdantema. Modelanalisis data mengacupada model analisis data interaktifmilik(Miles & Huberman, 1992). Aktivitasdalamanalisis model inimeliputi

(1) reduksi data,

(2) penyajian data,

(3) penarikankesimpulandanverifikasi.

Hasilpenelitianinimenunjukkanbahwastrukturceritadalambukuceritaanakpilihansiswasekolahdasar yang dilihatdariunsurpembentukceritameliputi tema, tokoh, latar, sudut pandang, dan tema. Unsuralur yang ditemukandalambukuceritaanakpilihansiswasekolahdasarmeliputipengenalanmasalah, pemunculanmasalah, klimaks, danpenyelesaianmasalah. Unsurtokohyang ditemukan tokohutamadantokohpembantu. Tokohutamaberupaanakkecil, hewan yang menyerupaianakkecildan orang dewasa, sertaboneka. Tokohpembantuberupa orang dewasa, hewan yang menyerupaianakkecildan orang dewasa,sertaperi.

Unsurlatarmeliputi tempat, waktu, dan suasana. Latartempatmeliputi

(1) alam(hutan, desa, dansarangmadu),

(2) Wilayah(gurunpasirdankutub),

(3)tempattinggal (rumah, dapur, danistana), dan

(4) pasar(supermarket danetalasetokoh). Latarwaktuyang ditemukan meliputipenyebutansecaralangsung, secaraumum, dansesuaidenganperedaranbumi.

(1) secaralangsung(pukul 12.00).

(2) secaraumum(suatuhari, setahunkemudian, danbeberapawaktu),

(3) peredaranbumi (pagihari, sianghari, petang, danmalamhari). Latarsuasana yang ditemukan meliputi keinginandanekspresitokohdalamcerita.

(1) keinginanmeliputikehausan, lapar, dantegopoh-gopoh.

(2) ekspresimeliputikesal, marah, sedih, kaget, kecewa, danlemah.

Unsursudutpandang yang ditemukanyakni, sudutpandang orang pertamapelakuutamadansudutpandang orang ketigaserbatahu. Sudutpandang orang pertamapelakuutama, yakni kata aku. Sudutpandang orang ketigaserbatahuyakni  dia. Unsurtema yang ditemukanmeliputitema mayor dantema minor. Tema moral yang bernilainegatifmeliputikecerobohan, pengkhianatan, kesombongan, balasdandam, danberburuksangka, nilaipositifmeliputikebijaksanaan, hemat, kasihsayang, semangat yang tinggi, berbaktikepadakedua orang tua, kecerdasan, rasa peduli, dankesabaran. Temasosialmeliputitoleransidantolong-menolong.

Dalam nilai edukatifyang meliputi

(1) moral,

(2) religius,

(3) sosial,dan

(4) budaya.Nilai moral yang ditemukanmeliputi

(a) kecerobohan,

(b) semangattinggi,

(c) berbaktikepada orang tua,

(d) kasihsayangorang tua,

(e) sikaphemat, dan

(f)pantangmenyerahdalamberusaha.Nilaireligiusyang ditemukan meliput

(a) mensyukurinikmattuhan, dan

(b) mengamalkanajaran agama.Nilaisosialyang ditemukan meliputi(a) kepedulianterhadapsesama, (b) terciptanya rasa tolong-menolong, dan

(c) toleransi.Nilaibudayayang ditemukan meliputi

(a) memperkenalkanbudayalokal,

(b) kepercayaanadatsetempat, dan

(b) menggunakanbahasadaerah.

Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, maka dapat diberikan saran bagi

(1)guru dansekolahuntukmenjadikanpenelitianinisebagaipertimbanganuntukreferensidalampembelajaranBahasa Indonesia di sekolah yang kaitandenganpengenalanunsurintrinsikdalamceritaanakdanperlunyajenisbukucerita yang beragam agar bacaan, imajinasidanpengetahuansiswalebihterasahdanberkembang. Terutamauntuksekolah yang telahmenerapkan Program GerakanLiterasiSekolah di Sekolahdasar,

(2) penulissastraanakagar menggunakanhasilpenelitianiniuntukmenambahdanmengasahketerampilandalammenuliskaryasastra, khusunyaceritaanak yang berkualitasdanmempunyainilai-nilaikehidupan di dalamnya, sepertinilaibudayalokal yang dapatdiangkatmenjadisebuahceritadanceritaanak yanglebihmemancingimajinasianak, dan

(3) penelitiselanjutnyamenggunakanhasilpenelitianinisebagaibahanreferensidanbahanrujukanuntukpenelitiantentangstrukturcerita di dalamkaryasastra, untukmemperkayapenelitiantentangsebuahkaryasastrakhususnyaceritaanakdandapatmengembangkanpenelitianinidenganobyekkajian yang berbeda, cakupan yang lebihluas, dandenganmetodologi yang berbeda.

SUMMARY

Rahmadina. 2019. Structur and Educational in Elementary School Student Choice Children's Literature Books. Thesis, Department of Basic Education, Postgraduate Program, State University of Malang.

Advisor: (1) Dr. MuakibatulHasanah, M. Pd., (2) Prof. Dr. HeriSuwignyo, M. Pd.,

Keywords: aesthetic values, educative values, children's story books

The rise of the implementation of the 15-minute reading movement in the education unit, especially in Elementary Schools in the School Literacy Movement (GLS) program has demanded that children's stories be varied because they will be used as reading material for students. This not only increases students' interest in reading but also can stimulate students to instill the values contained in reading books that students read.

The focus of this study reveals the story and educative structure in children's storybooks include:

(1) the structure of the stories contained in children's story books seen from story-forming elements, namely plot, character, setting, point of view, and theme

(2) educational values contained in Children's story books are seen from moral, religious, social and cultural values.

This study uses qualitative research methods with descriptive designs. The data sources in this study were 18 children's story books found in three primary school libraries namely SDN Percobaan 2, SDN Percobaan 1, and MIN 1 Malang. The instrument of this study is in the form of guidelines for flow analysis, characters, settings, perspectives, and themes and guidelines for analyzing educational values. The data collection technique in this study is a documentation study that utilizes selected children's story books of elementary school students. The procedure for data collection is done by collecting and selecting data. The form of this research data is the verbal exposure of the intrinsic elements of the plot, characters, settings, points of view and themes. The data analysis model refers to the interactive data analysis model that belongs to (Miles &Huberman, 1992). Activities in this model analysis include

(1) data reduction,

(2) data presentation,

 (3) drawing conclusions and verification.

The results of this study indicate that the structure of the story in the children's book choice of elementary school students seen from the story-forming elements includes themes, characters, settings, points of view, and themes. The flow elements found in selected children's books in elementary school students include problem recognition, problem appearance, climax, and problem solving. Character figures found by the main character and supporting figures. The main characters are small children, animals that resemble small children and adults, and puppets. Helper figures in the form of adults, animals that resemble small children and adults, and fairies.

The background elements include place, time and atmosphere. Place settings include

(1) nature (forest, village, and honeycomb),

(2) area (desert and pole),

(3) residence (home, kitchen, and palace), and

(4) market (supermarket and window display). The time frame found includes mentioning directly, in general, and in accordance with the circulation of the earth.

(1) directly (12.00).

(2) ingeneral (one day, a year later, and some time),

(3) circulation of the earth (morning, afternoon, evening, and night). The background of the atmosphere found includes the desires and expressions of the characters in the story. (1) desire includes thirst, hunger, and haste.

(2) expressions include upset, anger, sadness, shock, disappointment, and weakness.

The element of viewpoint is found, namely, the point of view of the first person the main actor and the point of view of the third person who knows everything. The first person's point of view is the main actor, namely my word. The third person's point of view is that he knows. The elements of the theme found include major themes and minor themes. Negative moral themes include carelessness, betrayal, arrogance, revenge, and deterioration, positive values include wisdom, frugality, compassion, high enthusiasm, devotion to both parents, intelligence, caring, and patience. Social themes include tolerance and help.

In educational values which include

(1) moral,

(2) religious,

(3) social, and

(4) culture. Moral values found include

(a) carelessness,

(b) high morale,

(c) devotion to parents,

(d) parental affection,

(e) saving attitude, and

(f) never giving up in trying. The religious values found include (

a) grateful for God's blessings, and

(b) practicing religious teachings. Social values found include

(a) caring for others,

(b) creating help, and

(c) tolerance. Cultural values found include

(a) introducing local culture, (b) local customary beliefs, and

 (b) using regional languages.

Based on the results of the study, suggestions can be given to

(1) teachers and schools to make this research a consideration for reference in learning Indonesian in schools related to the introduction of intrinsic elements in children's stories and the need for various types of storybooks for reading, imagination and student knowledge is more honed and developed. Especially for schools that have implemented the School Literacy Movement Program in Primary Schools,

(2) children's literature writers to use the results of this study to add and sharpen their skills in writing literature, especially children's stories that are quality and have life values in them, such as local cultural values that can be elevated into children's stories and stories that foster children's imagination, and

(3) the researcher then uses the results of this research as reference material and reference material for research on the structure of stories in literary works, to enrich research on a work literature, especially children's stories and can develop this research with different study objects, broader scope, and with different methodologies