DISERTASI dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM, 2019

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

Peningkatan Keterampilan Berbicara Siswa Kelas IV SD Muhammadiyah 1 Malang Melalui Model Kooperatif Tipe Time Token Arends Berbantuan Media Gambar

MUNA ELWI NAILUL

Abstrak


RINGKASAN

Muna, Elwi Nailul. 2019. Peningkatan Keterampilan Berbicara Siswa Kelas IV SD Muhammadiyah 1 Malang Melalui Model Kooperatif Tipe Time Token Arends Berbantuan Media Gambar. Tesis. Program Studi Pendidikan Dasar. Pascasarjana Universitas Negeri Malang. Pembimbing: (I) Prof. Dr. I Nyoman Sudana Degeng, M.Pd., (II) Prof. Dr. Fattah Hanurawan, M.Si, M.Ed.

Kata kunci: Keterampilan Berbicara, Model Time Token Arends, Media Gambar.

Berdasarkan hasil studi pendahuluan yang dilakukan peneliti pada siswa kelas IV B SD Muhammadiyah 1 Malang ditemukan beberapa permasalahan pada saat proses pembelajaran berlangsung. Permasalahan yang ada selama proses pembelajaran fokus pada keterampilan siswa dalam berbicara yang masih rendah. Permasalahan yang paling menonjol terlihat pada saat proses pembelajaran meliputi

(1) Siswa yang masih sulit memahami materi yang diberikan guru,

(2) Kegiatan komunikasi antara guru dengan siswa masih kurang,

(3) Kegiatan berbicara yang dilakukan di dalam kelas masih belum maksimal, terlihat masih banyak siswa yang tidak memiliki keberanian untuk berbicara didepan kelas, (4) Kegiatan berbicara seperti menceritakan kembali masih kurang berjalan maksimal, siswa masih kesulitan dalam memilih kosa kata dan masih cenderung sering mengulang kalimat,

(4) Selama proses pembelajaran berlangsung guru kurang memberikan inovasi dalam pembelajaran seperti penerapan model pembelajaran dan penggunaan media pembelajaran yang mendukung ketercapaian proses pembelajaran,

(5) Hasil belajar rata-rata secara klasikal masih belum mencapai KKM yang sudah ditentukan yaitu 70 dan hasil dari capaian siswa masih mencapai 68.86. Tujuan dilakukan penelitian ini yaitu untuk meningkatkan keterampilan berbicara siswa Kelas IVB SD Muhammadiyah 1 Malang melalui Model Kooperatif Tipe Time Token Arends dengan berbantuan Media Gambar.

Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif deskriptif dan rancangan Penelitian Tindakan Kelas (PTK) seperti model penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Kemmis dan Taggart (2014). Penelitian ini dilaksanakan melalui dua siklus. Tindakan selama proses pelaksanaan penelitian masing-masing melalui empat tahapan yang berulang pada setiap siklusnya, yaitu:

(1) Merencanakan kegiatan pembelajaran untuk meningkatkan keterampilan berbicara siswa,

(2) Melaksanakan proses pembelajaran dan melakukan pengamatan dengan menerapkan model tipe time token arends berbantuan media gambar untuk dapat mendorong siswa agar lebih terampil bicara didalam kelas  

(3) Melakukan refleksi dan evaluasi diri mengenai proses pembelajaran,

(4) Peneliti menarik kesimpulan mengenai pernelitian perlu dilakukan tindakan selanjutnya atau tidak.  Data yang dikumpulkan pada penelitian ini meliputi hasil belajar, observasi, wawancara, dokumentasi, dan angket. Data yang dianalais meliputi instrumen yang digunakan selama proses penelitian. Instrumen data tersebut berupa RPP, Lembar Kerja Siswa (LKS), pedoman wawancara guru kelas, pedoman wawancara siswa, pedoman observasi aktivitas guru, pedoman observasi penilaian keterampilan berbicara siswa saat menggunakan model berbantuan media, dan angket keterampilan berbicara siswa yang sudah divalidasi oleh ahli bidang pendidikan dasar.

Berdasarkan hasil penelitian terdapat peningkatan ketrampilan berbicara, khususnya melalui model kooperatif tipe time token arends berbantuan media gambar. Hal ini dapat terlihat dari ketercapaian yang didapat siswa sudah sesuai dengan kriteria keberhasilan secara klasikal yang ingin dicapai pada penelitian yaitu nilai KKM mencapai 70 dan ketuntasan belajar siswa mencapai ≥75%. Peningkatan tersebut dapat terlihat dari rata-rata hasil belajar siswa pada siklus I 73.67 dan meningkat pada pelaksanaan siklus II mencapai 77.25. Presentase ketuntasan belajar siswa juga sudah dapat meningkat pada keterampilan berbicara. Siklus I yang dilaksanakan sudah dapat menuntaskan 60.71% siswa dan meningkat pada siklus II mencapai 82.14%.

 

Peningkatan keterampilan berbicara siswa diperoleh dari interaksi antara guru dan siswa yang meningkat. Begitu pula keterampilan siswa dalam berbicara didepan kelas mempresentasikan media gambar yang sudah dibagikan guru saat penerapan model kooperatif tipe time token arends. Peningkatan keterampilan berbicara siswa meningkat karena penggunaan model dan media pembelajaran menjadi salah satu faktor untuk menumbuhkan rasa percaya diri siswa. Siswa didorong untuk dapat berbicara di depan kelas, menyampaikan pendapat, kritik maupun sanggahan terhadap pertanyaan atau pernyataan yang dilakukan siswa lain. Siswa menjadi jauh lebih aktif secara klasikal, pada saat guru memberikan tugas maupun kegiatan yang mendukung peningkatan keterampilan berbicara siswa.

 

Kegiatan diskusi yang dilakukan secara berkelompok juga sudah memberikan dampak positif bagi peningkatan keterampilan berbicara siswa. Terlihat sudah tidak ada siswa yang mendominasi untuk jauh lebih berperan dalam berbicara pada saat penerapan model kooperatif tipe time token arends ini.

SUMMARY

Muna, Elwi Nailul. 2019. Speaking Skills Improvement for Grade IV Students of Muhammadiyah Elementary School 1 Malang Through Cooperative Model Time Token Arends Type Assisted by Image Media. Thesis. Basic Education Study Program. Postgraduate of Malang State University. Advisor: (I) Prof. Dr. I Nyoman Sudana Degeng, M.Pd., (II) Prof. Dr. Fattah Hanurawan, M.Si, M.Ed.

Keywords: Speaking Skills, Media Image, Time Token Arends Models.

Based on the preliminary results of the study conducted by the researcher to the students grade IV B SD Muhammadiyah Malang 1, it was found that there are some problems at the time of the learning process. Existing problems during the learning process is focused on the speaking skills of the students which is still low. The most prominent problem at the time of the learning process includes

(1) students who are still difficult to understand the material that is taught by teachers,

(2) communication activities between teachers and students that is still quite low,

(3) the minimal frequency in talking activity in the class, it can be proved because there are many students who do not have the courage to speak in front of class,

(4) the low of the activities in the talking like retelling, students still find difficulty in selecting vocabulary and tend to repeat the sentences,

(5) during the learning process, teachers do not have innovation in learning, such as the application of the teaching model and the use of supports media in reaching the learning process,

(6) classically, the average results of the study still have not reached the KKM score specified yet, that is 70. The result of the students still reached 68.86. The purpose of this research is to improve students ' speaking skills of Class IVB SD Muhammadiyah Malang 1 by using the cooperative Model at Time Token Arends type assisted with Media images.

The research was conducted by using qualitative and quantitative approach with the types of research are descriptive and class action research design (PTK) like a Kemmis and Taggart research model. This research is conducted through two cycles. Every cycles is conducted in four steps repeatedly:

(1) making the learning process plan,

(2) conducting learning process and observing during the learning process appropriate with the plan designed previously,

3) conducting the reflection or self-evaluation, it means, observing the result found during the learning process,

(3) the researcher can decides to do (perbaikan) or not after the reflection. The data collected in this research include the results of the study, observation, interviews, documentation, and question form. The data analyzed include instruments used during the research process. The data instruments meant are RPP, the student Worksheet (LKS), interview guidelines of classroom teacher, the guidelines for interviewing students, the guidelines of teachers' activities observation, guidelines for the assessment of students' speaking skills of observation when using model-assisted media, and speaking skills of students who have been validated by expert field of primary education.

Based on the results of the research there is an increase in the teacher’s activity in teaching and student learning outcomes, particularly in improving speaking skills through cooperative model type time token arends-assisted media images. This can be seen from the reaching of the students that is success to be achieved the value of KKM score 70 and learning students achieved ≥ 75%. The improvement can be seen in the result average of student on a cycle I reached 73.67 and it increased in the implementation on a cycle II reached 77.25. Percentage of the learning students also can increase on speaking skills. In the cycle I has already reached 60.71% students and it increases in the cycle II reached 82.14%.

The increasing of teacher activity and the students ' speaking skills is gained from the increasing interaction between teachers and students. In addition, the skills of students in speaking in front of the class by presenting the media images shared by teacher when use the application the model of cooperative type time token arends. Increasing students 'speaking skills increases because the use of models and learning media is one factor to foster students' confidence. Students are encouraged to be able to speak in front of the class, express opinions, criticisms and objections to questions or statements made by other students. Students become much more classically active, when the teacher gives assignments and activities that support the improvement of students' speaking skills. The improvement of students ' speaking skills happened because during the learning process, the use of models and learning media is being one of factors to increase the confidence of students. Students become much more active when teachers give assignments or activities supporting students to improve speaking skills.

The activities of a group discussion also have given a positive impact for the enhancement of students ' speaking skills. There is no student dominating to dominate in talking by using cooperative model type time token arends.