DISERTASI dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM, 2010

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

Pengaruh Pengembangan Bahan Ajar Teori Evolusi Berbasis Molekular Melalui Pendekatan Pembelajaran Konstruktivisme Model PC2P Terhadap Kemampuan Berpikir Kritis, Pemahaman konsep dan Sikap Siswa SMA Negeri 3 Malang. (Tesis)

Dwi Sulistiarini

Abstrak


Teori evolusi merupakan salah satu konsep dasar dari biologi. Siswa sekolah menengah (SMA) dalam memahami Teori Evolusi sangat diperlukan karena untuk menghilangkan miskonsepsi dan sikap kontroversi yang banyak terjadi selama ini. Pendekatan bahan ajar teori evolusi dan pendekatan pembelajaran yang tepat sangat penting dilakukan oleh guru. Seiring dengan perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan, teknologi dan kemampuan intelektual yang luar biasa pesatnya, permasalahan-permasalahan terkait dengan miskonsepsi teori evolusi tersebut dapat dipecahkan melalui pendekatan molekuler. Saat ini biologi molekuler merupakan pendekatan paling rasional yang dapat digunakan untuk mempelajari teori evolusi. Miskonsepsi terhadap teori evolusi yang dialami siswa secara umum bersifat resisten dalam pembelajaran. Dalam hal ini, siswa membutuhkan suatu pendekatan pembelajaran yang tepat agar pembelajaran menjadi lebih bermakna. Pendekatan konstruktivisme adalah pendekatan pembelajaran yang memandang bahwa siswa belajar sains dengan cara mengkonstruksi pengertian atau pemahaman baru tentang fenomena dari pengalaman yang telah dimiliki sebelumnya.

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh bahan ajar Teori Evolusi , pendekatan pembelajaran, kemampuan akademik, dan interaksi antara bahan ajar , pendekatan pembelajaran dengan tingkat kemampuan akademik yang berbeda terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis, pemahaman konsep, dan sikap siswa SMA Negeri 3 Malang.

  Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan 2 tahap, pertama pembuatan bahan ajar, kedua adalah quasi eksperimen, yaitu 3 kelompok sampel diberi perlakuan yang berbeda dengan mempertimbangkan kemampuan akademik awal yang dilihat pengaruhnya terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis, pemahaman konsep, dan sikap siswa. Perangkat pembelajaran yang disusun mengadaptasi model 4-D (Define, Design, Develop, and Disseminate). Kegiatan yang dilakukan pada tahap ini adalah penyusunan perangkat pembelajaran yang dituangkan dalam silabus, rencana pelaksanaan pembelajaran (RPP), bahan ajar siswa, lembar kegiatan siswa (LKS). Rancangan penelitian ini adalah eksperimen semu (quasi eksperimen) Non-equivalent Control Group Design. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan menggunakan tes uraian untuk mengukur kemampuan berpikir kritis, tes pilihan ganda untuk mengukur pemahaman konsep, dan angket untuk mengukur sikap siswa. Data hasil penelitian eksperimen tersebut dianalisis dengan analisis kovariansi (Anakova), dimana hasil pre-test sebagai kovariat, kemudian uji lanjut dilakukan dengan uji beda Least Significances Different (LSD). Analisis statistik dibantu dengan software SPSS 14 for Windows, dilakukan dengan taraf signifikansi 0,05 (p

Keywords: Molecular Evolution, Constructivism, Critical Thinking Ability, Conceptual Comprehension, Attitude.

 

Evolution theory is one of basic concepts of Biology. Senior high school students in comprehending evolution theory is urgent to avoid misconception and controversial attitude. The material approach of evolution theory and appropriate learning approach should be done by the teacher. In the course of time and the development of knowledge, technology and intellectual ability that increasing rapidly, many problems related to the misconception of Evolution theory can be solved through molecular approach. Nowadays, molecular biology is the most rational approach to be used to study the evolution theory. Misconception on the evolution theory faced by students is generally resistant in learning. In this case the students need an appropriate learning approach to make the learning process be more meaningful. Constructivism approach is a learning approach says that students learn science by constructing a new comprehension about phenomenon from the former experience.

This research aims at finding out the influence of material of evolution theory, learning approach, academic ability and interaction among the materials, learning approach in different academic ability level, toward critical thinking conceptual comprehension and the students attitude in Senior High School 3 Malang.

The research is conducted in two phases. First, providing material, and the second experimental-quasi; three sample groups is treated different by considering the former academic ability and its influence toward critical thinking ability, conceptual comprehension and students' attitude. Learning devices are arranged by adapting model of 4-D (define, design, develop, and disseminate). The activities hold in this phase are: The arrangement of learning devices on a model of syllable, lesson plan, material, worksheet. This research design is quasi-experiment Non-equivalent Control Group Design. The Data were collected by using essay test to measure conceptual comprehension and using questioner to measure the students' attitude. The data analyzed is helped by software SPSS 14 for windows in significant level of 0,05 (p< 0,05).

The result of research showed: 1) There is an influence of material development of evolution theory molecular basis through conventional learning toward critical thinking ability, conceptual comprehension and the students' attitude, 2) There is an influence of material development of evolution theory molecular basis through constructivism approach model PC2P toward critical thinking, conceptual comprehension and the students' attitude, 3) a. There is an influence of academic ability level toward critical thinking ability, conceptual comprehension and attitude on the implementation of material of molecular based evolution theory. 3) b. There is an influence of academic ability toward critical thinking ability and conceptual comprehension, but there is not an influence on students' attitude on the implementation of material of molecular based evolution theory through constructivism approach model PC2P. 4) There is an influence of interaction between Molecular based Evolution Theory with academic ability level toward critical thinking ability but does not affect the conceptual comprehension and the students' attitude. 5) There is an influence of interaction between Molecular based Evolution Theory through constructivism approach model PC2P toward critical thinking ability, conceptual comprehension and the students' attitude in Senior High School 3 Malang.

Based on the results of the research, it can be suggested: 1) For the school: it can be used as a policy in designing learning devices, in order to improve the quality of education especially in Senior High School 3 Malang. 2) For the teacher: a) It can be implemented as an effort to overcome misconception toward Evolution Theory, b) It is beneficial to develop the students achievement especially in critical thinking ability, therefore it is suggested to implement in order materials. c) It is implemented to avoid the academic ability gap in improving the students' achievement, d) It is implemented in learning of Evolution Theory especially in senior high school, remembering many problem in the transfer of this material since it is considered as controversial theory, e) It is implemented to avoid misconception and controversial attitude. Material approach and learning strategy that more appropriate is urgent to do by the teacher, as far as the development of science, technology and intellectual ability that grow rapidly. Many problems related to misconception of Evolution theory can be solved through molecular approach. Recently, molecular approach have been a most rational approach that can be used to learn evolution theory. 3) For the students, a) The implementation of research result can help the students to comprehend the concept of evolution theory correctly. So the misconception can be avoid and the students are able think and act positively; it can help the students to change the way of learning biology from memorizing into thinking correlatively to built a new concept.