DISERTASI dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM, 2010

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

Hubungan Ambiguitas Peran, Kelelahan Emosional, dan Iklim Sekolah dengan Kinerja Guru SMP Negeri di Kabupaten Maluku Tengah. (Tesis)

Andrie J. Kumantouw

Abstrak


Keunggulan suatu bangsa tidak lagi bertumpu pada kekayaan alam, melainkan pada keunggulan sumber daya manusia (SDM). Peningkatan kualitas sumber daya manusia sangat penting dilakukan untuk menghadapi tantangan-tantangan era global di mana diperlukan kekuatan daya saing yang tangguh. Tuntutan perkembangan teknologi serta informasi yang membentuk sebuah jaringan dunia tanpa batas (bondaryless organizational networking), menuntut adanya pembenahan dan penyesuaian-penyesuaian di bidang pendidikan untuk menghadapi tingkat persaingan yang cukup tinggi. Guru yang berada di garda paling depan harus bisa memenuhi tantangan tersebut. Diperlukan guru yang profesional yang memiliki kecakapan akademik maupun kecakapan non akademik serta memiliki kinerja yang tinggi sehingga mampu bersaing di era kompetitif sekarang ini.

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi kinerja antara lain, ambiguitas peran, kelelahan emosional, dan iklim sekolah. Berdasarkan faktor-faktor itulah rumusan masalah dalam penelitian ini adalah (1) bagaimanakah gambaran mengenai ambiguitas peran pada guru SMP Negeri di Kabupaten Maluku Tengah, (2) bagaimana gambaran mengenai kelelahan emosional pada guru SMP Negeri di Kabupaten Maluku Tengah, (3) bagaimana gambaran mengenai iklim sekolah yang berlangsung pada SMP Negeri di Kabupaten Maluku Tengah, (4) bagaimana gambaran mengenai kinerja guru SMP Negeri di Kabupaten Maluku Tengah, (5) apakah terdapat hubungan antara ambiguitas peran dengan kinerja guru SMP Negeri di Kabupaten Maluku Tengah, (6) apakah terdapat hubungan antara kelelahan emosional dengan kinerja guru SMP Negeri di Kabupaten Maluku Tengah, (7) apakah terdapat hubungan antara iklim sekolah dengan kinerja guru SMP Negeri di Kabupaten Maluku Tengah, (8) seberapa besar hubungan antara ambiguitas peran, kelelahan emosional, dan iklim sekolah dengan kinerja guru SMP Negeri di Kabupaten Maluku Tengah.

Untuk menjawab rumusan masalah di atas, penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan rancangan penelitian deskriptif korelasional yang bertujuan mengungkap hubungan antara variabel ambiguitas peran, kelelahan emosional, dan iklim sekolah dengan kinerja guru SMP Negeri di Kabupaten Maluku Tengah. Populasi dalam penelitian ini 37 SMP Negeri dan  jumlah guru 489 orang. Sampel yang diambil sebanyak 18 SMP Negeri dengan jumlah guru 202 orang. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan dengan teknik Proposional Random Sampling, sedangkan instrumen yang digunakan untuk pengumpulan data adalah angket.

Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa: (1) tingkat ambiguitas peran guru SMP Negeri di Kabupaten Maluku Tengah termasuk kategori tinggi dengan nilai mean sebesar 38,96 dan median yakni sebesar 39,00, (2) tingkat kelelahan emosional guru SMP Negeri di Kabupaten Maluku Tengah termasuk ketegori tinggi dengan nilai mean sebesar 48,27 dan median yakni sebesar 49,00, (3) tingkat iklim sekolah SMP Negeri di Kabupaten Maluku Tengah termasuk kategori tinggi dengan nilai mean sebesar 110,58 dan median yakni sebesar 111,00, (4) tingkat kinerja guru SMP Negeri di Kabupaten Maluku Tengah termasuk kategori sangat tinggi dengan nilai mean sebesar 109,36 dan median yakni sebesar 109,00, (5) terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara ambiguitas peran dengan kinerja guru SMP Negeri di Kabupaten Maluku Tengah dengan p =  0,001, (6) terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara kelelahan emosional dengan kinerja guru SMP Negeri di Kabupaten Maluku Tengah dengan p = 0,000, (7) terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara iklim sekolah dengan kinerja guru SMP Negeri di Kabupaten Maluku Tengah dengan p = 0,001, dan (8) terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara ambiguitas peran, kelelahan emosional, iklim sekolah dengan kinerja guru SMP Negeri di Kabupaten Maluku Tengah dengan F = 0,000. Artinya peningkatan variabel ambiguitas peran, kelelahan emosional akan menurunkan tingkat kinerja guru karena koefisien korelasi bernilai negatif, begitupun sebaliknya. Sedangkan iklim sekolah yang lebih baik maka akan meningkatkan kinerja guru karena koefisien korelasi bernilai positif, begitupun sebaliknya.

Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat dikemukakan saran-saran sebagai berikut: (1) kepada para peneliti lain agar temuan ini dapat dijadikan salah satu rujukan ilmiah dalam melakukan penelitian lebih lanjut tentang masalah yang berkaitan dengan psikologi pendidikan dan perilaku organisasi, (2) kepada kepala sekolah SMP Negeri di Kabupaten Maluku Tengah agar senantiasa melakukan berbagai upaya untuk meminimalisir kondisi psikologis guru yang telah berada pada kategori tinggi, (3) kepada guru SMP Negeri di Kabupaten Maluku Tengah, agar hasil penelitian ini dapat menambah pengetahuan tentang: ambiguitas peran, kelelahan emosional, iklim organisasi serta kinerja pada SMP Negeri di Kabupaten Maluku Tengah, sehingga terjadi peningkatan profesionalisme diri sebagai upaya meningkatkan kualitas SDM, (4) kepada Pengawas Sekolah SMP Negeri di Kabupaten Maluku Tengah, agar dijadikan rujukan untuk melakukan strategi pembinaan psikologi guru serta perilaku organisasi di sekolah, agar kinerja sekolah dan keefektifan sekolah makin meningkat serta tujuan institusional dapat tercapai, (5) kepada Kepala Dinas Pendidikan Kabupaten Maluku Tengah, agar dapat dijadikan dasar untuk pengambilan kebijakan berupa penempatan guru-guru di daerah terpencil secara merata, karena kondisi tersebut sangat mempengaruhi psikologis guru, (6) kepada Kepala BKD Kabupaten Maluku Tengah, agar dapat dijadikan masukan untuk pengambilan kebijakan dengan cara menerapkan prinsip-prinsip pendekatan kualifikasi dan kompetensi demi terwujudnya kinerja sekolah yang baik, (7) kepada Kepala Dinas Pendidikan Provinsi Maluku, agar temuan hasil penelitian ini dijadikan rujukan dalam pengambilan kebijakan untuk melakukan koordinasi dan upaya meningkatkan mutu pendidikan, dan (8) kepada Menteri Pendidikan Nasional, agar temuan ini dapat dijadikan rujukan yang tepat dalam merumuskan strategi dan model pembinaan terhadap sekolah-sekolah di Indonesia, khususnya di daerah yang terisolir atau daerah yang memiliki keterbatasan transportasi sehingga secara bertahap dapat meningkatkan mutu sumberdaya manusia yang berdaya saing tinggi.

 

Abstract:

Keywords: ambiguity of roles, emotional exhaustion, school climate, and teachers' performance.

The superiority of a country does not depend on its abundance of natural resources only, but also the superiority of its human resources. The development of human resources is of a paramount importance in order to face the challenges in the global era which requires very strong effort to compete among nations. The rapid change in information and technology which builds the so-called the boundaryless organizational networking requires improvement and adjustment in educational area in order to face the competition. Teachers as the main actors in the educational area are forced to fulfill the challenge. Therefore nowadays the teachers should be professional in terms of possessing academic and non-academic capability, as well as having great effort to participate in the competition.

The study aimed at identifying the correlations among the factors influencing the teachers' performance such as the ambiguity of roles, emotional exhaustion, and school climate. Regarding those factors, the following is the formulation of research questions: (1) to what extent is the ambiguity of roles of the teachers at the State Junior High Schools in Maluku Tengah Regency? (2) to what extent is the emotional exhaustion of the teachers at the State Junior High Schools in Maluku Tengah Regency? (3) to what extent is the school climate of the teachers at the State Junior High Schools in Maluku Tengah Regency? (4) to what extent is the teachers' performance at the State Junior High Schools in Maluku Tengah Regency? (5) is there a correlation between the ambiguity of roles and the teachers' performance at the State Junior High Schools in Maluku Tengah Regency? (6) is there a correlation between the emotional exhaustion and the teachers' performance at the State Junior High Schools in Maluku Tengah Regency? (7) is there a correlation between the school climate and the teachers' performance at the State Junior High Schools in Maluku Tengah Regency? (8) how far is the correlations among the ambiguity of roles, emotional exhaustion, and school climate with the teachers' performance at the State Junior High Schools in Maluku Tengah Regency?

To answer those questions, this study was conducted through descriptive correlational design for the purpose of identifying the correlations among the ambiguity of roles, emotional exhaustion, and school climate with the teachers' endeavor at the State Junior High Schools in Maluku Tengah Regency. The research population consisted of 37 state junior high schools with 489 teachers, whereas the samples were taken from 18 state junior high schools with 202 teachers. The sampling technique was proportional random sampling, while the instrument used to obtain the data was questionnaire.

The results of research showed the following points: (1) the level of the ambiguity of roles of the teachers at the State Junior High Schools in Maluku Tengah Regency falls on high category with the mean of 38,96 and median of 39,00, (2) the level of the emotional exhaustion of the teachers at the State Junior High Schools in Maluku Tengah Regency falls on high category with the mean of 48,27 and median of 49,00, (3) the level of the school climate at the State Junior High Schools in Maluku Tengah Regency falls on high category with the mean of 110,58 and median of 111,00, (4) the level of the teachers' performance at the State Junior High Schools in Maluku Tengah Regency falls on very high category with the mean of 109,36 and median of 109,00, (5) there is a significant correlation between the ambiguity of roles of the teachers and the teachers' performance at the State Junior High Schools in Maluku Tengah Regency which is proven by p = 0,001, (6) there is a significant correlation between the emotional exhaustion of the teachers and the teachers' performance at the State Junior High Schools in Maluku Tengah Regency which is proven by p = 0,000, (7) there is a significant correlation between the school climate and the teachers' performance at the State Junior High Schools in Maluku Tengah Regency which is proven by p = 0,001, and (8) there is significant correlations among the ambiguity of roles, the emotional exhaustion, and the school climate with the teachers' performance at the State Junior High Schools in Maluku Tengah Regency which is proven by p = 0,000. By these numbers, it can be interpreted that the higher the role of ambiguity and the emotional exhaustion of the teachers is, the lower the level of teachers' performance is because the correlation coefficient is negative and the reverse, whereas the better the school climate is, the higher the level of the teachers' performance is because the correlation coefficient is positive and the reverse.

On the basis of the results, some suggestions can be drawn as the following: (1) the future researchers should also use the results of this study as a scientific reference in the area of investigation related to problems on educational psychology and organizational behavior, (2) the headmasters at the State Junior High Schools in Maluku Tengah Regency should be determined to minimize the psychology condition of the teachers which has been in high level, (3) the teachers at the State Junior High Schools in Maluku Tengah Regency should use the results of this study to improve their knowledge about the ambiguity of roles, the emotional exhaustion, the school climate and the teachers' performance in order to be more professional in increasing the quality of human resources, (4) the supervisors at the State Junior High Schools in Maluku Tengah Regency should use the results of the study as a reference to employ appropriate strategy of supervision to the teachers especially their psychology condition and school climate in order to improve the effectiveness of the schools to achieve the institutional objectives, (5) the head of the Education Department of Maluku Tengah Regency should use the results of this study as the foundation for decision making especially related to the evenness of distribution of the teachers to the remote areas because such a condition can influence their psychology, (6) the head of BKD in Maluku Tengah Regency should use the results of this study as the inputs for improving the policy of the programs by applying some principals related to qualifications and competency approaches for the better school management, (7) the head of the Education Department of Maluku Province should use the results of this study as a reference to make decision for the coordination as well as the improvement of the quality of education in the province, and (8) the Ministry of National Education should use the results of the study as a reference for the formulation of new strategy and model of supervision towards all schools in Indonesia, especially the remote areas to improve the quality of education as well as that of human resources.