DISERTASI dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM, 2010

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

Distribusi dan Kelimpahan Invertebrata Penggerek Laut pada Jenis Kayu Pembuatan Kapal di Perairan Pulau Ambon dan Penerapannya dalam Pendidikan Masyarakat di Kecamatan Leihitu. (Disertasi)

Hasan Tuaputty

Abstrak


Bahan kayu yang digunakan sebagai alat transportasi dan alat melaut oleh masyarakat di daerah Maluku Tengah terdiri atas berbagai jenis kayu, tetapi umumnya adalah kayu titi, (Gmelina moluccana Backer), kayu damar (Agathis alba Foxw), kayu besi (Inesia amboinensis Thouaes), kayu bintangur (Calophyllum inophyllum Liin). Dalam menetapkan standar keawetan kayu yang tepat untuk masyarakat pesisir dan nelayan, maka dilakukan eksperimen terhadap sifat keawetan kayu dan survey terhadap penguasaan pengetahuan nelayan tentang kualitas kayu untuk membuat perahu atau kapal.

Penelitian ini dilakukan sesuai permasalahan yaitu (1) Jenis-jenis ganggang dan invertebrata penggerek laut apa saja yang melekat pada jenis kayu pembuatan kapal, kedalaman perendaman, jarak perendaman dari tepi pantai? (2) Bagaimana pengaruh jenis kayu pembuatan kapal, kedalaman perendaman, jarak perendaman dari tepi pantai terhadap sementasi ganggang? (3) Bagaimana pengaruh jenis kayu pembuatan kapal, kedalaman perendaman, jarak perendaman dari tepi pantai terhadap kelimpahan invertebrata penggerek laut? (4) Apakah ada korelasi antara sementasi ganggang dengan kelimpahan penggerek laut terhadap kerusakan jenis kayu pada kedalaman perendaman 1 m dan 2 m dalam jarak 30 m dan 50 m dari tepi pantai? (5) Apakah ada perbedaan pengetahuan sebelum (pre tes) dan sesudah penyuluhan (post tes) tentang kualitas kayu dan invertebrata penggerek laut pada kelompok nelayan? (6) Apakah ada perbedaan penguasaan pengetahuan tentang kualitas kayu dan invertebrata penggerek laut pada kelompok nelayan yang memiliki tingkat pendidikan berbeda?

Hasil identifikasi jenis ganggang dan invertebrata yang menempel pada jenis kayu perlakuan yaitu (1) ganggang terdari dari Clorophyceae, sebanyak 7 jenis, Rhodophyceae 3 jenis dan Phaeophycea 4 jenis (2) invertebrata penggerek laut yang menempel pada jenis kayu perlakuan adalah Lepas sp, Balanus balanus, Chatamalus proteus, Cellana tramoserica, Styela plicata, Crassostrea ieginica. Hasil analisis anava ganda dijelaskan sebagai berikut (1) Jenis kaya berpengaruh sangat signifikan terhadap sementasi ganggang dan kelimpahan invertebrata penggerek laut (2) Kedalaman perendaman berpengaruh sangat signifikan terhadap sementasi ganggang dan kelimpahan invertebrata (3) Jarak perendaman berpengaruh sangat signifikan terhadap sementasi ganggang dan kelimpahan invertebrata (4) terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara sementasi ganggang dan kelimpahan invertebrata terhadap kerusakan kayu perlakuan (5) terdapat perbedaan antara pengetahuan awal dan pengetahuan setelah mengikuti penyuluhan (5) ada perbedaan penguasaan pengetahuan masyarakat nelayan berdasarkan tingkat pendidikan. u perlakuan.

Berdasarkan sementasi ganggang dan distribusi serta kelimpahan invertebrata penggerek laut yang menempel pada kayu perlakuan sesuai hasil analisis memberikan gambaran bahwa kayu bintanggur memiliki sifat awet diikuti , tetapi kayu titi dan kayu damar kurang memiliki sifat awet, hal ini disebabkan tekstur kayu bintangur dan kayu besi berdasarkan kesan raba tekstur seratnya halus dan licin dibandingkan dengan kayu titi dan kayu damar. Analisi korelasi menunjukkan hubungan sementasi ganggang dan kelimpahan penggerek laut terhadap kerusakan kayu. Kayu bintangur memiliki daya tahan di lingkungan air laut dibandingkan dengan kayu besi, kayu titi dan kayu damar.

Berdasarkan hasil survey terhadap masyarakat nelayan melalui tes yang dan dilakukann analisis menunjukkan ada perbedaan signifikan antara prates dan pascates. Pengetahuan awal kelompok nelayan yang berpendidikan SMA lebih tinggi 1,416 kali dibandingkan nelayan yang berpendidikan dasar dan penguasaan pengetahuan dari nelayan yaang berpendidikan SMA 1,082 kali lebih tinggi dari para nelayan berpendidikan dasar. Masih banyak yang berpendidikan dasar, sehingga perlu dilakuan pemberdayaan melalui pendidikan masyarakat secara non formal dan formal. Pemerintah daerah perlu memberikan kesempatan bagi anak-anak nelayan memperoleh pendidikan formal pada jenjang yang lebih tinggi bagi masa depan mereka, karena semakin tinggi pendidikan formal semakin baik tingkat penguasaan pengetahuan dalam menghadapi kehidupan di masa yang akan datang.

Abstract:

Keywords: kinds of wood, seaweed segmentation, the abundance sea gimlet, fisherman' knowledge, education level.

The wood substances that could be used as transportation tool in Central Mollucas consist of various kinds of wood, they in general, however, are titi wood, (Gmelina molluccana Backer), resin wood (Agathis alba Foxw), iron wood (Inesia amboinensis Thouaes), and bintangur wood ( Calophyllum inophyllum Liin). In stating the standardized and appropriated qualities of wood preservation for the fishermen and the society along the seashore so, the experiment and survey are conducted through the basic knowledge and education level mastery of fishermen about wood quality and sea gimlet.

This research has been done and based on the problems as follows; (1) what are the seaweed kinds and sea gimlet intervebrata that stick on the kinds of wood for building the ship as sea production, the depth of submersion, and the distance of submersion depth from sea shore? (2) How is the kind of wood influence to the ship production, the submersion depth, the distance of submersion depth from the seashore through the depth of seaweed segmentation? (3) How is the kind of wood influence of the ship production, the submersion, the distance of submersion depth from the seashore through the abundance of sea gimlet invertebrata? (4) Is there any correlation between the seaweed segmentation and the abundance of sea gimlet intervebrata through detriment kinds of wood in submersion depth of 1 m and 2 m in the space of 30 and 50 m from the sea shore? (5) Is there any difference between the base knowledge used (pre test) and the new provable knowlege after the treatment (post test) about the quality of wood, and the sea gimlet invertebrata among the group of fishermen? (6) Is there any difference of the knowledge mastey upon the quality of wood and sea gimlet invertebrata witin the difference of education level of fishermen?

The identification result of the seaweed kind and sea gimlet invertebrata that stick on the kinds of wood treatment are as follows: (1) the seaweed consist of Clorophyceae which has 7 kinds, Rodophyceae has three kinds, and Paeophyceae has four kinds, (2) the sea gimlet invertebrata consist of Lepas sp, Balanus balanus, Chatamalus proteus, Cellana tramoseric a, Styela plicata, Crassostrea ieginica. The result found from double anava analysis could be explained as follows. (1) the kinds of wood have very significance inluence to the seaweed segmentation and the abundance of sea gimlet invertebrata. (2) The depth of submersion has the very significance inluence to the seaweed segmentation and the invertebrata abundance. (3) The distance of submersion is very significantly influenced to the seaweed segmentation and the abundance of invertebrata. (4) There is significantly relationship between seaweed segmentation and invertebrata abundance upon the demage of treatment wood. (5) There is the difference between the formerly (pre) knowledge and the post knowledge owned by the fishermen and their societies after getting counseling. (6) There is the difference between the fishermen communities' scientific mastery and the treatment of educational degree.

Based on the seaweed segmentation and distribution, as well as the abundance of sea gimlet invertebrata that stick on the treatment wood, and suitable to the analysis which give the illustration that bintangur wood has strong feature, the titi wood and damar wood, howe ver, have less strong feature. It is caused by the texture of bintangur wood and iron wood that is based on the touching impression texture are soft and smooth compared to the titi and damar woods. The corelation analysis shows the seaweed segmentation and the abundance of sea gimlet invertebrata upon wood damage. The bintangur has the resistance power in the water surounds if it is compared to the iron wood, titi wood, as well as damar wood.

Based on the survey result to the fishermen societies through the test and analysis, lt indicates that there is the significantly difference between the pre test and post test. The early knowledge of fishermen communities who have the secondary level and stated as the educated persons is higher 1,416 times, compared to the fishermen who have the elementary level and stated as educated persons, and the scientific mastery of the fishermen who are stated as secondary educated persons are 1,082 times higher than the fishermen who only have the basic education level. There are so many fishermen who still have basic education that needed to be up grade through formal or nonformal of public education.

Regional Government should give the opportunity to fishermen and the sea shore communities' children for attending formal education at the higher level now and later. By the way, they can master either the basic knowledge or the high grade of education so that they will have also good mastery of formal sciences and enable them to enjoy good life nowadays and the future.