DISERTASI dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM, 2010

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

Kualitas Mikrobiologi Jajanan Es di Sekitar SD pada Wilayah Pusat Kota, Tengah Kota, dan Pinggir Kota Ditinjau Dari Nilai MPN Bakteri Coliform, Coliform fecal, dan Total Koloni Escherichia coli sbg Materi untuk Pembelajaran di SD di Malang 2010. (Tesis)

Muhammad Nasir Tamalene

Abstrak


Jajanan es kemasan sering dijual di sekitar sekolah dasar (SD) di wilayah pusat kota, tengah kota, dan pinggiran kota Malang. Es kemasan tersebut dibuat secara tradisional oleh masyarakat dengan menggunakan air PDAM dan air sumur. Sekolah dijadikan sebagai tempat untuk berjualan oleh Pedagang Kaki Lima (PKL), sekolah juga merupakan tempat yang paling laris untuk berjualan es karena anak SD dengan aktivitasnya yang tinggi dapat menimbulkan rasa haus sehingga memungkinkan mereka untuk membeli jajanan es yang dijual di sekitar sekolah tersebut. Pada umumnya siswa SD tidak mengetahui jenis-jenis jajanan yang layak dikonsumsi, mereka hanya mengetahui bahwa dengan meminum es dapat menghilangkan rasa haus mereka, selain itu mereka tidak memikirkan bahaya yang ditimbulkan karena meminum es yang tidak higienis. Dengan meminum es yang tidak higienis akan menyebabkan siswa menjadi sakit sehingga dapat mempengaruhi aktivitas mereka di sekolah. Jenis Minuman yang dijual disekitar SD di antaranya es kemasan. Es kemasan tersebut dapat terkontaminasi oleh bakteri patogen sehingga memerlukan standar tertentu untuk menjamin kelayakan konsumen. Air dan makanan yang terkontaminasi oleh bakteri patogen saluran pencernaan sangat berbahaya untuk diminum terutama air yang berasal sumur yang kurang memenuhi syarat kualitas mikrobiologinya.

Tujuan penelitian ini ialah sebagai berikut. (1) untuk mengetahui kualitas mikrobiologi jajanan es kemasan di sekitar SD pada wilayah pusat kota,tengah kota, dan pinggiran kota Malang ditinjau dari nilai MPN koliform yang disesuaikan dengan standar cemaran oleh BPOM Indonesia, (2) untuk mengetahui kualitas mikrobiologi jajanan es kemasan di sekitar SD pada wilayah pusat kota, tengah kota, dan pinggiran kota Malang ditinjau dari nilai MPN koliform fecal yang disesuaikan dengan standar cemaran oleh BPOM Indonesia, (3) untuk mengetahui perbedaan kualitas mikrobiologi jajanan es kemasan di sekitar SD pada wilayah pusat kota, tengah kota, dan pinggiran kota ditinjau dari keberadaan nilai total koloni E. coli di Kota Malang, dan (4) untuk mengetahui bentuk penyusunan materi ajar di SD berdasarkan hasil penelitian kualiatas mikrobiologi jajanan es kemasan di sekitar SD pada wilayah pusat kota, tengah kota, dan pinggiran kota Malang untuk pembelajaran di SD.

Jenis penelitian ini ialah penelitian deskriptif komparatif dengan pendekatan ekspose facto. Rancangan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini ialah Rancangan Acak lengkap (RAL). Sampel dalam penelitian ini ialah kelompok bakteri Coliform, Coliform fecal, dan koloni E. coli yang terdapat dalam jajanan es kemasan yang diambil dengan teknik purposive sampling dari populasi penjual jajanan es di wilayah pusat kota, tengah kota, dan pingggiran kota Malang.

Hasil penelitian ini membuktikan bahwa (1) kualitas mikrobiologi jajanan es kemasan di sekitar SD pada wilayah pusat kota, tengah kota, dan pinggiran kota Malang ditinjau dari keberadaan nilai MPN coliform tidak layak untuk dikonsumsi berdasarkan nilai MPN coliform sebesar >2400 sel/ml sampel, (2) kualitas mikrobiologi jajanan es kemasan di sekitar SD pada wilayah pusat kota, tengah kota, dan pinggiran kota Malang ditinjau dari keberadaan nilai MPN koliform fecal tidak layak untuk dikonsumsi berdasarkan nilai MPN coliform fecal sebesar >2400 sel/ml sampel, (3) ada perbedaan kualitas mikrobiologi es kemasan yang dijual di sekitar SD pada wilayah pusat kota, tengah kota, dan pinggiran kota Malang berdasarkan jumlah total koloni E. coli. Jumlah total koloni E. coli dalam sampel es kemasan di wilayah pusat kota yaitu 452,4 koloni/ml, tengah kota 570,8 koloni/ml, dan pinggiran kota 806,7 koloni/ml. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian tersebut maka jajanan es kemasan yang dijual disekitar SD di kota Malang tidak layak dikonsumsi, hal berdasarkan ketentuan Dirjen POM Indonesia tentang batas maksimal cemaran mikroba dalam makanan yaitu cemaran bakteri coliform maksimal

Packed ice snacks are often sold in Elementary School environment at city center area, central city, and suburbs area of Malang. The packed ice snacks were made traditionally by the people using water and the water wells. Schools used as a place to sell by the sidewalk vendors, the school also provided the best-selling to selling ice because the elementary school children with their high activity may cause them thirst, and it will allow them to buy packed ice snacks sold in around the school. Generally, the elementary school students do not know the types of snacks consumed, they just know that by drinking ice can relieve their thirst, other than that they didn't think about the dangers posed by drinking unhygienic ice. By drinking unhygienic ice will cause sickness on students that can affect their learning activities in school. One of types of beverages sold in elementary school is packed ice. Packed ice is likely to be contaminated by pathogenic bacteria which enabling certain standards to ensure the cleanliness. Water and food contaminated by pathogenic bacteria digestive tract is very dangerous to drink, particularly the water that comes from the well which it less qualified microbiology quality.

The purpose of this study is as follows. (1) To assess the microbiological quality of packed ice snack which sold around elementary school at the city center area, central city, and the suburbs area of Malang in terms of the existence of coliform MPN values, adjusted with the standard contamination by Indonesia, (2) to assess the microbiological quality of packed ice snack which sold around elementary school (SD) at the city center area, central city, and the suburbs area of Malang which reviewed by the coliform fecal MPN values that adjusted with pollution standards by BPOM Indonesia, (3) to know the difference of microbiological quality of packed ice which sold around elementary school at the city center area, central city, and the suburbs area of Malang in terms of existence value of total colonies of E. coli in Malang, and (4) to determine the form of teaching materials in elementary school based on the results of microbiological research of packed ice snack quality which sold around elementary school at the city center area, central city, and the suburbs area of Malang in order to learning in elementary school.

Type of this research is a comparative descriptive study with expose facto approach. The design used in this study was Complete Randomized Design. The sample in this research is the group of coliform bacteria, coliform fecal, and colonies of E.coli found in packed ice snack taken by purposive sampling technique from the population of street sellers of ice in the city center area, central city, and the suburbs area of Malang.

The results of this study research prove that (1) microbiological quality of packed ice snacks which sold around the elementary school at the city center area, central city, and the suburbs area of Malang in terms of the existence of coliform MPN value is not suitable for consumption based on the amount of coliform MPN > 2400 cells/ml sample, (2) quality of microbiology on packed ice snacks which sold around the elementary school at the city center area, central city, and the suburbs area of Malang which reviewed by the existence of coliform fecal MPN values are not suitable for consumption based on the value of the fecal coliform MPN > 2400 cells/ml sample, (3) there are the differences in microbiological quality of packaged ice sold in elementary school at the city center area, central city, and the suburbs area of Malang based on the total number of colonies of E. coli. The total number of colonies of E. coli in a sample of packed ice snacks in city center area was 452.2 colonies/ml, 570.8 colonies/ml at the central city, and 806.7 colonies/ml at the suburbs area, whereas the difference test results using One Line anova at 5% level of significance shows that F.hitung (14.854) > F.total (5.143) and significance value (P) for 0,005 < a (0.05) so that Ho is rejected, this means there is a very significant difference at the number of colonies of E. coli observed in these three areas. Thus the education hypothesis is accepted, and (4) materials based on research results of microbiological quality of packed ice snacks which sold around the elementary school at the city center area, central city, and the suburbs area of Malang is the teaching materials about the Food and Clean Environment for Health.

Based on findings of this study research, some suggestions are as follows: (1) the elementary school students in the city center area, central city, and the suburbs area of Malang to be careful in choosing snacks to be consumed which sold around the school, (2) the school through the School Health Enterprises to better provide a more specific attention to elementary school children through education about safe and appropriate snacks to be consumed, (3) the parents of students, in order to always provide home made breakfast and lunch when their children go to school, (4) Malang city government through the health department, in order to promote wellness programs through counseling towards the street sellers around the elementary school in Malang, (5) BPOM of Malang, in order to continue to monitor the snacks that are not safe for consumption, and provide training to the seller who sold the snacks around the elementary school about the safe and proper snack to be sold, (6) suggested to first grade elementary school teacher in the city of Malang in order to use teaching materials that have been compiled for the benefit of contextual-based learning, and (7) suggested to the next researchers, to examine the quality of microbiological, physical, chemical and other types of snacks besides the packed ice snacks sold in the surrounding elementary schools in the city of Malang.