DISERTASI dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM, 2010

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

Daya Hidrolisis Lemak oleh Bakteri Lipolitik Indigen dalam Limbah Cair Pabrik Minyak Kelapa Sawit Sebagai Sumber Belajar Mikrobiologi. (Tesis)

Sainab Sainab

Abstrak


Limbah cair pabrik minyak kelapa sawit mengandung zat organik dengan kadar yang tinggi, sehingga menyebabkan pencemaran di lingkungan sekitar pabrik pengolahan kelapa sawit. Pabrik minyak kelapa sawit telah mengupayakan pengolahan limbah cair yang dihasilkan dengan menerapkan sistem lagoon (kolam), namun pengoperasian sistem lagoon belum optimal sehingga outlet belum memenuhi baku mutu limbah cair. Dalam limbah cair pabrik minyak kelapa sawit terdapat spesies bakteri lipolitik indigen yang mempunyai potensi melakukan hidrolisis terhadap lemak dan minyak. Berdasarkan masalah ini perlu dilakukan penelitian terhadap bakteri lipolitik indigen yang memiliki kemampuan yang potensial dan optimal dalam menghidrolisis lemak dalam limbah cair kelapa sawit, sehingga hasilnya dapat digunakan dalam teknologi pengolahan limbah cair yang berwawasan lingkungan yang dikenal dengan teknologi bioremediasi.

Tujuan penelitian ini ialah: (1) mendeskripsikan spesies-spesies bakteri indigen yang berasal dari limbah cair pabrik minyak kelapa sawit yang bersifat lipolitik, (2) mendeskripsikan karakteristik dan ciri-ciri morfologi koloni serta mikroskopis dari spesies-spesies bakteri indigen yang bersifat lipolitik yang berasal dari limbah cair industri kelapa sawit, (3) menjelaskan perbedaan kemampuan hidrolisis lemak antara spesies-spesies bakteri lipolitik yang ditemukan dalam limbah cair pabrik minyak kelapa sawit, (4) menguji perbedaan pengaruh volume biakan bakteri dari tiap isolat bakteri lipolitik indigen terhadap kemampuan hidrolisis lemak, (5) menguji perbedaan pengaruh interaksi antara macam isolat bakteri lipolitik indigen dan volume biakan bakteri terhadap kemampuan hidrolisis lemak, dan (6) menjelaskan konstribusi hasil penelitian tentang daya hidrolisis lemak oleh bakteri lipolitik indigen dalam limbah cair pabrik minyak kelapa sawit sebagai sumber belajar Mikrobiologi.

Penelitian ini menggunakan teknik deskriptif komparatif untuk mendeskripsikan masing-masing isolat bakteri lipolitik indigen yang berpotensi menghidrolisis lemak. Sedangkan dengan pendekatan eksperimen bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan kemampuan hidrolisis lemak dari tiap isolat bakteri lipolitik indigen dengan variasi volume biakan serta pengaruh interaksinya terhadap penurunan kadar lemak dalam medium uji Nutrien Cair ditambah lemak (NCL). Data penelitian kedua dianalisis menggunakan analisis varians (uji F) ganda pada taraf uji 5%, dan dilanjutkan dengan uji BNT 5%. Rancangan penelitian eksperimen uji hidrolisis lemak dalam medium NCL menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL). Sampel penelitian berupa limbah cair kelapa sawit yang diambil dari bak pengendapan I pabrik PT. Suryaraya Lestari 1 di Mamuju, Sulawesi Barat. Penelitian secara Mikrobiologi dilakukan di laboratorium Mikrobiologi FMIPA UM, analisis kadar lemak di laboratorium Kimia UMM, dan identifikasi isolat bakteri lipolitik menggunakan MicrobatTM 12A/B/ E, 24E Identification Kits di laboratorium Mikrobiologi FK UNIBRAW.

Hasil penelitian ialah: (1) terdapat 18 isolat bakteri lipolitik indigen yang berasal dari limbah cair pabrik minyak kelapa sawit yang; (2) ditemukan 6 isolat yang paling berpotensi menghidrolisis lemak dengan kode D, E, J, O, V, dan W. Masing-masing isolat mempunyai ciri-ciri morfologi koloni dan mikroskopis yang berbeda satu sama lain. Isolat D dan E ialah Proteus vulgaris strain d_LCKS dan Proteus vulgaris strain e_LCKS, isolat J, O, dan W ialah Bacillus coagulans strain j_LCKS, Bacillus coagulans strain o_LCKS dan Bacillus coagulans strain w_LCKS, dan isolat V ialah Acinetobacter baumanii; (3) masing-masing spesies bakteri lipolitik mempunyai kemampuan hidrolisis lemak yang berbeda satu sama lain secara signifikan. Isolat bakteri kode D memiliki kemampuan hidrolisis lemak paling potensial; (4) volume biakan bakteri dari tiap isolat bakteri lipolitik indigen berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap kemampuan hidrolisis lemak. Volume biakan bakteri yang paling optimal dalam menghidrolis lemak ialah volume biakan 30 ml; (5) tiap macam isolat bakteri lipolitik indigen dengan variasi volume berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap kemampuan hidrolisis lemak. Isolat bakteri lipolitik indigen kode D dengan volume biakan bakteri 30 ml paling potensial dan optimal dalam menghidrolisis lemak; (6) hasil penelitian tentang daya hidrolisis lemak oleh bakteri lipolitik indigen dalam limbah cair pabrik minyak kelapa sawit dapat digunakan sebagai sumber belajar dalam bentuk Penuntun Praktikum pada matakuliah Mikrobiologi.

Bertitik tolak dari hasil temuan penelitian ini, beberapa saran yang dapat diajukan ialah (1) kepada pihak pabrik kelapa sawit PT. Suryaraya Lestari 1 di Mamuju, Sulawesi Barat disarankan untuk menggunakan spesies bakteri Proteus vulgaris, yang telah terbukti paling potensial dan optimal dalam menghidrolisis lemak, untuk keperluan bioremediasi limbah cair yang mengandung lemak (2) volume biakan bakteri lipolitik untuk keperluan hidrolisis lemak dalam limbah cair pabrik minyak kelapa sawit PT. Suryaraya Lestari 1 di Mamuju, sebaiknya dipilih volume sebesar 30 ml per 100 ml limbah cair (3) perlu dilakukan penelitian sejenis lebih lanjut dengan perlakuan menggunakan konsorsium/kombinasi beberapa spesies bakteri lipolitik indigen untuk menghidrolis lemak dalan limbah cair pabrik minyak kelapa sawit.

 

Abstract:

Liquid waste of the oil palm contains organic substance in a high rate, thereby it can cause contamination for the environment in the oil palm processing company's surrounding. The oil palm company have done efforts to process the liquid waste resulted by implementing lagoon system, but its operation of the implementation of the lagoon system was not yet optimal. Therefore, the outlet did not yet fulfill the standard quality of the liquid waste itself. In the liquid waste of the oil palm company, there are indigent lypolitic bacteria which have the potential ability to do the hydrolysis to the fat and oil. Based on this problem, it is needed to do a study of the indigent lypolitic bacteria which have the potential ability to do the hydrolysis process to the fat in the oil palm optimally. Accordingly the results can be used in the technology to process the liquid waste that gives a big attention to the environment which is called bioremediation technology.

This study aimed to describe the species of the indigent bacteria which come from the liquid waste of the oil palm company which are lypolitic, (2) to describe the characteristics and morphological features of the colony and microscopic of the indigent bacteria species which are lypolitic and come from the liquid waste of the oil palm company, (3) explain the differences of the ability in doing the hydrolysis process among the indigent bacteria species found in liquid waste from the oil palm company, (4) examine the differences of the volume of the bacteria in affecting the ability to do the fat hydrolysis process, and (5) explain the contribution of the result of this study pertaining to the fat hydrolysis power done by the indigent lypolitic bacteria in the liquid waste of the oil palm company as a source of microbiological material.

This study used a comparative descriptive technique to describe each of the indigent bacteria which have a potential to do the fat hydrolysis. The experiment approach was aimed to know the difference of the hydrolysis ability of each indigent bacterium and the variation of its volume and the effects of its interaction towards the degradation of the fat rate in the medium experiment of the liquid nutrition added by fat (NCL). The data was got and analyzed by using the double variants analysis (F analysis) in the experiment rate 5% and was continued by the analysis of BNT 5%. The research design of this fat hydrolysis experimental in the medium of NCL is using the complete random design (rancangan acak lengkap/RAL). The sample of this study was a liquid waste got from a container precipitation from a company named PT. Suryaraya lestari 1 in mamuju, west Sulawesi. This study microbiologically was done in a microbiological FMIPA UM laboratory, fat rate analysis was done in FMIPA UMM and the identification of the lypolitic bacteria was done by using MicrobatTM 12 A/B/E identification kits in microbiological FK UNIBRAW laboratory.

The result of this study were (1) there were 18 isolates indigent lypolitic bacteria which come from the liquid waste of the oil palm company; (2) there were found 6 isolates which have the greatest potential in doing fat hydrolysis encoded D,E,J,O,V and W. each of this isolate has morphological characteristics either in colony or microscopic which were different each other. Isolate D and E are Proteus vulgaris strain d_LKCKS and Proteus vulgaris strain e_LKCKS, isolate j, o, w are and Bacillus coagulants strain j_LKCKS, Bacillus coagulants strain o_LKCKS and Bacillus coagulants strain w_LKCKS and isolate V is Acinetobacter baumanii, (3) each of the species of lypolitic bacteria has the different ability in doing hydrolysis process from one to another significantly. Isolate bacteria code D has the most potential ability in doing fat hydrolysis. (4) the volume of the bacteria from each of the indigent lypolytic bacteria affects significantly toward the ability in doing fat hydrolysis. The volume of the bacteria which is considered the most potential and optimal in the ability in doing fat hydrolysis is in 30 ml. (5) each of the isolate indigent lypolytic bacteria which varied in its volume affects significantly toward the ability in doing fat hydrolysis. The isolate lypolytic bacteria code D which has volume 30 ml is the most potential and and optimal in doing fat hydrolysis, (6) the result of the study about fat hydrolysis power by the indigent lypilytic bacteria in the liquid waste of the oil palm company can be used as the source of the material about microbiology.

Based on these findings, some suggestions are proposed (1) for the oil palm company PT SuryaRaya Lestari 1 Mamuju west Sulawesi is suggested to use the specie of proteus vulgaris bacteria which has already proven as the most potential and the most optimal in doing the fat hydrolysis to do bioremediation the liquid waste which contains fat (2) the volume of the lypolytic bacteria to do fat hydrolysis in the liquid waste of the oil palm company PT Suryraya Lestari 1 Mamuju west Sulawesi should be in the volume 30 ml per 100 ml of the liquid waste (3) it is needed to do further study by using consortium or combination from come indigent lypolytic bacteria to do fat hydrolysis of the liquid waste from the oil palm company.