DISERTASI dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM, 2010

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

The Effectiveness of Strategic Interaction Approach in Promoting Speaking Skill. (Thesis)

Wakhid Nashruddin

Abstrak


This study focuses on testing the effectiveness of strategic interaction approach in promoting speaking skill. The research applied was a quasi-experimental research. The subjects of the study, as the experiment group, were 29 students who were taught using strategic interaction approach. On the other hand, 23 students were assigned to the control group, and they were treated using role play technique-a conventional technique in teaching speaking.

A question was then raised: "Is there any difference in speaking skill between students who were taught using strategic interaction approach and those who were taught using role-play in their speaking class?"

The pre-test indicated that the two groups-experiment and control-were in different levels. The mean score of the experiment class was 66.60, with 80 as the highest and 51 as the lowest score. The mean score of the control group was 71.78, with 54 as the lowest score and 86 as the highest score. To calculate the students' ability in speaking from two different level classes of students, a certain statistical calculation was needed. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to adjust the starting point by including pre-test scores as covariate. The assumptions of ANCOVA have been fulfilled. The independency of observations, the normal distribution of dependent variable, the homogeneity of variances, the linear relationship between covariate and the dependent variable, and the homogeneity of regression slopes have been met before the calculation.

Post-test was assigned to the two groups to measure the progress of the study. The experimental group reached 74.43 of the average score, indicating that it raised its mean score by 7.83. The highest score for this group was 85.5, and the lowest one was 62. On the other hand, control group improved its mean score only 1.85, from 71.78 to 73.63. The highest score for this class was 87.5 while the lowest was 64.

Two steps of ANCOVA were conducted to test the effectiveness of strategic interaction approach in promoting speaking skill. The first was testing the interaction between covariate and fixed factor and the second was the analysis of covariance. On the test between subject effects-in the first step, it shows Sig (.090) > α (.05) which means that there was no interaction between strategic interaction approach and pre-test. In the second step, it was found out that, at 95% of confidence, Sig (.007) > α (.05) which means that there is a difference in speaking skill between students who were taught using strategic interaction approach and those who were taught using role play in their speaking class. From ANCOVA, the effectiveness of strategic interaction approach was proved better than role play.

Secondary data supported the successfulness of the research. The result of questionnaires as minor data indicated that 63.22% of the students and 83.33% of the teacher had enough positive attitudes in the experiment that helped the successfulness of the teaching and learning using strategic interaction approach. Meanwhile, the observation checklist showed that the teacher taught correctly.

In conclusion, strategic interaction approach has been proved to be effective in promoting the students' speaking skill, especially in developing speaking fluency. Tests as primary data have shown that strategic interaction approach is more effective than role play in teaching speaking while the minor data also support the findings. For teachers intending to improve their students' fluency in speaking may use strategic interaction approach in their speaking classes. The limitations of the study were about the short treatment time and the avoidance of using recording (audio or audio-video) as an instrument. For further research, these limitations can be addressed.

 

Abstrak:

Studi ini bertujuan menguji efektifitas strategic interaction approach sebagai sebuah teknik pengajaran berbicara. Riset ini menggunakan desain quasi-ksperimen. Subjek penelitian ini, sebagai kelas eksperimen, adalah 29 mahasiswa yang diajar menggunakan strategic interaction approach. Sementara itu, 23 mahasiswa di dikelompokkan dalam kelas kontrol dan diajar menggunakan teknik role-play-sebuah teknik yang lebih mapan dalam pengajaran berbicara.

Sebuah pertanyaan diajukan dalam penelitian ini: "Apakah ada perbedaan kemampuan berbicara antara mahasiswa yang diajar menggunakan strategic interaction approachdibandingkan dengan mereka yang diajar menggunakan teknik role-pley?"

Hasil pre-tes mengindikasikan bahwa dua kelompok tersebut-eksperimen dan kontrol-berada pada level yang berbeda.Nilai rata-rata di kelas eksperimen adalah 66,60, dengan nilai 80 sebagai nilai tertingi dan 51 sebagai nilai terendah. Sementara itu, kelas kontrol mempunyai nilai rata-rata 5,18 poin lebih tinggi daripada kelas eksperimen. Nilai rata-rata kelas kontrol adalah 71,78 dengan nilai 54 sebagai nilai terendah dan 86 sebagai nilai tertinggi. Untuk menghitung kemampuan berbicara mahasiswa yang mempunyai kemampuan berbicara yang berbeda, penghitungan menggunakan statistik tertentu diperlukan. Analisis Kovarian (Analysis of Covariance/ANCOVA) digunakan untuk menyamakan level kemampuan siswa, dengan memasukkan pre-tes sebagai kovarian. Asumsi-asumsi ANCOVA telah terpenuhi. Independensi pengamatan, variabel dependen dengan normal distribusi, homogenitas varian, hubungan linear antara kovarian dan variable dependen, dan homogenitas regression slopes telah terpenuhi sebelum penghitungan menggunakan jenis analisis ini.

Post-tes diberikan kepada dua kelompok untuk mengukur kemajuan belajar. Kelas eksperimen mencapai nilai rata-rata 74,43, mengindikasikan peningkatan sebanyak 7,83. Nilai teringgi dalam kelompok ini adalah 85,5 dan yang terendah adalah 62. Sementara itu, kelas kontrol meningkatkan nilai rata-ratanya hanya sebanyak 1,85 poin dari 71,78 ke 73,63. Nilai tertinggi dalam kelompok ini adalah 87,5 dan terendah 64.

Dua langkah ANCOVA dilaksanakan untuk menguji efektifitas strategic interaction approach dalam meningkatkan kemampuan berbicara. Pertama adalah uji interaksi antara kovarian dan fixed factor dan yang kedua yaitu analisis kovarian. Di langkah pertama, Sig (.090) > α (.05) yang berarti tidak ada interaksi antara strategic interaction approach dan pre-tes. Di langkah kedua, ditemukan Sig (.007) > α (.05) yang berarti ada perbedaan kemampuan berbicara antara mahasiswa yang diajar menggunakan strategic interaction approach dan mereka diajar menggunakan teknik role-play di kelas berbicara mereka. Berdasarkan perhitungan menggunakan ANCOVA, efektifitas strategic interaction approach terbukti lebih baik dari pada role-play.

Data sekunder juga mendukung sukesenya penelitian ini. Kuesioner mengindikasikan bahwa 63,22% persepsi mahasiswa dan 83,33% persepsi guru adalah positif sehingga mendukung suksesnya pengajaran berbicara menggunakan strategic interaction approach. Di sisi lain, observation checklist menunjukkan guru telah tepat mengajar dengan benar.

Sebagai kesimpulan, strategic interaction approach telah dibuktikan efektif dalam meningkatkan kemampuan berbicara mahasiswa, khususnya dalam meningkatkan kelancaran berbicara. Tes sebagai data primer menunjukkan bahwa strategic interaction approach lebih efektif meningkatkan kemampuan berbicara dibandingkan dengan role-play dan data sekunder mendukung hasil penelitian ini. Untuk para guru atau dosen yang berkeinginan meningkatkan kelancaran berbicara murid-murid atau para mahasiswanya, strategic interaction approach bisa menjadi alternatif yang menjanjikan. Keterbatasan penelitian ini berada pada pendeknya waktu perlakuan (treatment time) dan tidak digunakannya alat perekam (audio atau audio-video) sebagai salah satu instrument penelitian. Untuk penilitian yang akan datang, hal-hal ini dapat dijadikan dasar pijakan.