DISERTASI dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM, 2010

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

Penerapan Pembelajaran Kooperatif TPS (Think Pair Share ) Untuk Meningkatkan Kemampuan Kognitif dan Kemampuan Afektif Siswa Kelas X TKJ B Pada Materi Program Linear di SMK Negeri 8 Malang. (Tesis)

Bambang Wahyudi

Abstrak


Pembelajaran kooperatif tipe TPS (Think Pair Share) merupakan pembelajaran yang bermanfaat untuk melatih siswa mengkonstruk kembali pengetahuan yang sudah mereka miliki. TPS memberikan waktu berpikir dan merespon serta saling membantu satu sama lain. TPS terdiri atas tiga tahapan inti yaitu think (berpikir) artinya siswa memikirkan secara individu suatu permasalahan, pair (berpasangan) artinya secara berpasangan mendiskusikan jawaban sementara permasalahan, dan share (berbagi) artinya siswa secara berpasangan berbagi pada seluruh kelas dan siswa lain menanggapi.

Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kualitatif dengan jenis penelitian tindakan kelas. Permasalahan yang ada di kelas X SMK Negeri 8 Malang khususnya di kelas X TKJ B adalah rendahnya kemampuan kognitif dan kemampuan afektif siswa dalam belajar matematika. Untuk mengatasi permasalahan tersebut akan dilaksanakan pembelajaran kooperatif tipe TPS. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan penerapan pembelajaran kooperatif dalam meningkatkan kemampuan kognitif dan afektif siswa. Penelitian tindakan kelas ini dilaksanakan dalam dua siklus. Siklus I menggunakan materi menentukan model matematika dari soal cerita (kalimat verbal) dan siklus II menggunakan materi menentukan nilai optimum dari sistem pertidaksamaan.

Kemampuan kognitif siswa diukur dengan menggunakan tes yang berbentuk uraian. Tes dilaksanakan sebanyak tiga kali yaitu tes awal, tes akhir siklus I dan tes akhir siklus II. Untuk kemampuan afektif siswa diukur dengan menggunakan instrumen berupa lembar observasi kemampuan afektif siswa selama pembelajaran berlangsung dan angket afektif siswa. Data penelitian hasil tes dianalisis dengan cara menghitung rata-rata dan menghitung persentase peningkatannya. Untuk data penelitian hasil observasi dianalisis dengan cara menghitung skor yang dilanjutkan pada penentuan kategori yang dicapai dan mempersentase hasil peningkatannya. Sedangkan angket kemampuan afektif siswa dianalisis untuk mengetahui peningkatan kemampuan afektif siswa.

Hasil penelitian menghasilkan model pembelajaran yang dapat meningkatkan kemampuan kognitif dan afektif siswa. Adapun model pembelajaran yang dilaksanakan dalam pembelajran kooperatif tipe TPS mempunyai tiga tahap, yaitu tahap pendahuluan, tahap inti dan tahap penutup. Tahap inti dalam pembelajaran kooperatif tipe TPS adalah tahap think, tahap pair, dan tahap share. Dari model pembelajaran yang telah dilaksanakan menunjukkan bahwa penerapan pembelajaran koopertif tipe TPS dapat meningkatkan kemampuan kognitif dan kemampuan afektif siswa. Hal ini dapat dilihat dari peningakatan tes awal dan tes akhir siklus I sebanyak 52,85%, tes akhir siklus I dan tes akhir siklus II sebanyak 28,63%, dan tes awal dengan tes akhir siklus II sebanyak 81,48%. Dari hasil angket afektif siswa tersebut diperoleh hasil siswa dengan kategori sangat baik 22,22 %, siswa dengan kategori baik 55,56%, siswa dengan kategori kurang baik 22,22 %, dan siswa dengan kategori tidak baik 0%.

Berdasarkan hasil penelitian tersebut, peneliti menyarankan sebaiknya pembelajaran kooperatif tipe TPS (Think Pair Share) dijadikan alternatif yang perlu dipertimbangkan dalam pembelajaran. Hal ini karena pembelajaran kooperatif tipe TPS dapat meningkatkan kemampuan kognitif dan afektif siswa.

 

Abstract:

Think pair share (TPS) cooperative teaching model is a useful teaching strategy to train students to reconstruct their knowledge they have learnt. It gives students time to think, respond and help each other. It has three important phases; think which means thinking problems individually; pair which means discussing and drawing a hypothesis of a problem in pair; and share which means pairs of student share their ideas and the other students respond to their presentation in the class.

This research is a qualitative research. It is presented in the form of classroom action research. Problems which rise in grade X TKJ B of SMK Negeri 8 Malang are low cognitive and affective ability in learning mathematic. In order to overcome those problems, it was planned to apply think pair share cooperative teaching model. Therefore, this research was intended to describe the implementation of think pair share cooperative teaching model to increase students' cognitive and affective ability. This classroom action research was brought in to two cycles. In the first cycle, defining mathematic models of a narrative question is used as the main material and in the second cycle, the material is defining optimum value of inequality system.

Students' cognitive ability is measured by using essay test. It was done three times. They are preliminary test, post-test of cycle I, and post-test of cycle II. For measuring the students' affective ability, observation was conducted during the research and questionnaire was also distributed to gain more data. Data which gained from the tests were analyzed by calculating average and percentage of students' improvement. For the data which obtained from observation, it was analyzed by calculating scores and then categorizing the students' achievement based on the standard has set before. In addition, the students' improvement was also presented in the form of percentage of improvement. Data form questionnaire was analyzed to know more about students' affective ability improvement.

The result of this study generates a teaching model which is potential to improve students' cognitive and affective ability. This teaching model applied during the classroom action. It was brought in three teaching stages. The stages are introduction, main activity, and closing activity. The main activity, in think pair share (TPS) cooperative teaching model, is involving three phases: think phase, pair phase, and share phase. Based on the findings, it is clearly seen that the implementation of TPS could increase students' cognitive and affective ability. It can be seen from the improvement of students' achievement in the tests. Comparing to the result of the preliminary test, it found that students' achievement was improved by 52,85% in post-test of cycle I, students achievement in the post-test of cycle II was also improved from the last result in the post-test of cycle I by 28,63%. In general, from the preliminary test result to the post-test of cycle II result, the students achievement was improved by 81,48%. From the questionnaire, it was found that 22,22% of students were very good, 55,56% of them were categorized as good, 22,22% were fair, and no one (0%) was categorized as poor.

Based on the result of the study, the researcher suggest Think pair share (TPS) cooperative teaching model a considerable teaching model because it has effectively improved students' cognitive and affective ability.