DISERTASI dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM, 2018

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

EFL Learners’ Interpretations of Metaphors





Prasasti, WigatiDyah. 2017. EFL Learners’ Interpretations of Metaphors. Dissertation.Doctoral Programme in English Language Education, Universitas Negeri Malang.Advisors: (1) Prof. UtamiWidiati, M.A., Ph.D., (2) Prof. Adnan Latief, M.A., Ph.D., (3) Dr. Johannes A. Prayogo, M.Pd., M.Ed.


Key words: Literary reading, literary competence, interpretation, metaphors


            Despite the claim of some previous studies that reading comprehension should focus more on learners’ understanding of the surface-level and literal meaning of the text, there is a need of enquiring into learners’ ability in making meaning in the form of interpretation of some symbolic language possibly found in the text. Metaphor is one of the forms of figurative language that can be found in any text form. Particularly in literary texts, metaphors contained in such reading texts are more obvious and contextually situated, which allow EFL learners to be more explorative when trying to entangle their symbolic meaning. This study aims at revealing two addressed problems: (1) How does EFL learners’ understanding meaning through factual contents of a literary text lead to their making meaning in forms of metaphor interpretations? and (2) What patterns of metaphor interpretation do EFL learners produce? The theories used as the basis of the study are reader-response theory and the theory of literary competence.

The data were in forms of textual data collected from 15 English Department students. The first data were learners’ written responses to the given short story of which level of readability was 5.4 measured at Flesch-Kincaid readability statistics. The second data were textual data in the forms of detailed transcriptions from recordings of the interviews. The data were selected based on the proposed problems of the study and analysed using content analysis based on the aforementioned theories and a particular analytical framework.

            The study reveals that by having an analytic reasoning in understanding the text based on its factual contents in forms of intrinsic values e.g. the characters, the plot, the setting, and the theme, EFL learners used them as leads in the process of making new constructed meanings of the metaphors. The learners produced transitional and extra-textual patterns of metaphor interpretation which involved their epistemic reasoning that required them to go beyond comprehending the text. It signifies that when presenting transitional patterns, some learners looked not only at the intra-textual references but also wider personal and sociocultural scopes in the forms of reflections. In presenting extra-textual patterns, some others did self-reflection and reflection on the world.

            Based on the findings of the study, EFL learners’ critical responses in meaning making in the form of metaphor interpretations are worthy of further investigations. It is also suggested that English teachers make use of literary texts as alternatives of more complex and socioculturally-adhered reading texts in view of the notion that reading comprehension should involve learners’ meaning making of symbolic languages.