DISERTASI dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM, 2010

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

Pengembangan Model Asesmen Otentik dalam Pembelajaran Keterampilan Berbahasa Indonesia Lisan di SMA. (Disertasi)

Sri Wahyuni pps

Abstrak


Asesmen otentik adalah penilaian yang dilakukan secara komprehensif berkenaan dengan seluruh aktivitas pembelajaran, meliputi proses dan produk belajar sehingga seluruh usaha peserta didik yang telah dilakukannya mendapat penilaian. Asesmen otentik menuntut peserta didik untuk berunjuk kerja dalam situasi yang konkret dan sekaligus bermakna. Asesmen otentik dalam penelitian ini diterapkan untuk mengukur keterampilan berbahasa Indonesia lisan di SMA. Keterampilan ini dijadikan fokus karena evaluasi pembelajaran terhadap keterampilan berbahasa lisan selama ini masih belum maksimal, belum sepenuhnya mampu menggambarkan kemampuan berbahasa lisan perserta didik secara nyata.

Tujuan penelitian ini secara umum adalah untuk mengembangkan model asesmen otentik dalam pembelajaran keterampilan berbahasa Indonesia lisan di SMA. Secara khusus, tujuan yang hendak dicapai melalui penelitian ini adalah (1) mengembangkan perangkat model asesmen otentik dalam pembelajaran keterampilan berbahasa Indonesia lisan di SMA dan  (2) menguji ketepatan dan efektivitas perangkat yang mendukung model asesmen otentik melalui uji ahli, telaah guru, tanggapan siswa, dan uji lapangan.

Model pengembangan penelitian ini diadaptasi dari Model Pengembangan R2D2 (Reflective, Recursive Design and Development)  Willis dan Model Asesmen Bahasa Lisan O'malley & Pierce. Produk ini dikembangkan melalui langkah (1) pembentukan tim kolaboratif, (2) studi pendahuluan (tahap pemfokusan), (3) merencanakan asesmen, mendesain dan mengembangkan produk asesmen, mengadakan uji coba produk, merevisi produk (tahap perenca-naan dan pengembangan), dan (4) pemaketan akhir dan penyebaran (tahap diseminasi). Uji coba produk dalam penelitian ini menggunakan desain penelitian deskriptif dan  quasi eksperimen untuk uji lapangan. Subjek uji pengembangan produk dalam penelitian ini adalah ahli psikologi pendidikan, ahli teknologi pendidikan, ahli perancang pembelajaran bahasa, ahli evaluasi pembelajaran bahasa, ahli bahasa, guru dan siswa SMA Negeri 01, SMA Negeri 4, dan SMA Wahid Hasyim Malang. Data dalam penelitian ini terdiri dari dua macam, yaitu data kualitatif dan kuantitatif yang dikumpulkan dengan menggunakan teknik (1) dokumentasi, (2) angket, (3) observasi, dan (4) asesmen otentik. Data dianalisis secara kualitatif dan kuantitatif. Data kuantitatif dianalisis dengan menggunakan metode statistik deskriptif untuk melihat persentase jawaban dari para ahli, guru, dan siswa. Khusus untuk data hasil uji lapangan dianalisis dengan menggunakan teknik analisis uji-t sampel berpasangan.

Hasil pengembangan produk penelitian ini berupa Perangkat Asesmen Otentik dalam Keterampilan Berbahasa Indonesia Lisan di SMA, yang meliputi (a) perencanaan asesmen, (b) pemetaan asesmen, (c) instrumen dan rubrik asesmen, (d) standar penilaian, dan (e) kesimpulan nilai. Untuk memudahkan guru dalam melaksanakan asesmen otentik, produk penelitian ini dilengkapi dengan VCD model penerapannya.

Berdasarkan hasil uji pengembangan produk, secara umum model asesmen otentik yang dikembangkan sudah sangat memadai. Hasil uji ahli secara umum sangat memadai. Dari hasil uji ahli tersebut ditemukan kelebihan produk seperti keunggulan asesmen yang dikembangkan selain juga ditemukan beberapa kelemahan. Beberapa kelemahan misalnya kejelasan suatu konsep, kebenaran isi pada kompetensi tertentu, dan sebagainya. Beberapa kelemahan yang ditemukan para ahli ini selanjutnya dijadikan pijakan untuk merevisi produk penelitian ini. Hasil telaah guru secara umum menunjukkan hasil sangat baik, dalam arti produk secara umum sangat mudah diterapkan. Hasil tanggapan siswa terhadap model asesmen yang diterapkan secara umum menunjukkan hasil cukup baik, dalam arti mereka cukup senang dengan model asesmen tersebut. Dari sepuluh kategori, mayoritas persentase tanggapan menunjukkan mereka cukup senang dengan model asesmen ini. Uji lapangan melalui panelitian quasi eksperimen menunjukkan hasil yang efektif. Dari kelima analisis data statistik di lima kelas uji coba, keseluruhannya menunjukkan hasil yang sama, yaitu terdapat  perbedaan yang signifikan antara nilai prates dan postes. Dengan demikian dapat disimpulkan bahwa model asesmen otentik yang dikembangkan efektif digunakan dalam mengevaluasi pembelajaran keterampilan berbahasa Indonesia lisan siswa SMA.

Revisi produk dilakukan berdasarkan simpulan yang diperoleh dari kegiatan analisis data uji coba produk. Komentar dan saran dari ahli psikologi pendidikan, ahli perancang pembelajaran, ahli evaluasi pembelajaran bahasa, ahli bahasa, dan guru dijadikan acuan untuk keperluan revisi produk pengembangan. Revisi produk tidak hanya dilakukan pada bagian produk yang dinilai kurang memadai saja, tetapi juga pada bagian produk yang dinilai cukup/sangat memadai tetapi ada saran yang memang membuat produk ini menjadi lebih baik lagi.

Abstract:

 

Authentic assessment is a comprehensive assessment of all instructional activties covering both process and product of learning so that all kinds of learners' learning efforts are assessed. An authentic assessment requires the learner to perform something in a real and meaningful situation. The spoken type of language skills is the focus in the present research because the assessment of this type of skills is thus far not maximum yet, in the sense that its assessment has not fully uncovered the learners' real competence in spoken language.

The target of the present research is to develop a authentic assessment model in the teaching of spoken skills of bahasa Indonesia at senior high school level. More specifically, the objectives are (1) to develop the required instruments for the use of authentic assessment for the teaching of spoken skills of Bahasa Indonesia at senior high school level, that include (a) manual for the use of the model, and (b) lesson planning, consisting of syllabus and lesson plan, and (2) assessing the validity and effectiveness of the model through expert judgment, teacher analysis, student response, and field try out.

The model of the present developmental research is adapted from the R2D2 (Reflective, Recursive Design and Development) Model by Willis and Spoken Language Assessment Model by O'Malley and Pierce. The product was developed through stages of (1) setting up collaborative team, (2) preliminary study (focusing stage), (3) planning, designing and developing the assessment, trying it out, and revising (planning and developing stage), and (4) packaging and disseminating (disseminating stage). The try out activity was implemented by using descriptive and quasi-experimental research designs. The try out subjects were experts in educational psychology, instructional designs, language instructional assessment, language skills, teachers and students at States Senior High Schools 1 and 4, and Wahid Hasyim Senior High School Malang. The data were both qualitative and quantitative and were collected by means of (1) documentation, (2) questionnaire, (3) observation, and (4) authentic assessment. The data of preliminary study and some data of try out activity were analyzed qualitatively, while the data of expert validation, teacher analysis, student response, and field try out were analyzed quantitatively. The quantitative data were analyzed descriptively by computing the percentages of experts', teachers', and students' responses. Moreover, the data from field try out were analyzed by using paired-sample t-test.

The products of the present developmental study were a set of the Instruments  that cover (a) assessment planning, (b) assessment specification, (c) assessment instrument and rubrics, (d) evaluation standard, and (e) final score. To help teacher implement the authentic assessment easily, the product of the present developmental research was completed with a VCD containing its implementation model.

Base on the try out of development product, in general authentic assessment model have been developed is already sufficient. The data from expert judgment indicate that the products were already sufficient. Moreover, some strengths like assessment model and weaknesses of the products were found. Three of the weaknesses are clarity of concept, truthfulness of the content of certain competencies, and consistence of indicator and objective. These weaknesses were then considered in the subsequent revision of the products. The data from teacher analysis, moreover, indicate that in general the products were very good, in the sense that they were easy to implement. One point of revision based on data of teacher analysis is about the lesson plan as it should include the project/task sheet. Then, the data from student responses as measured in ten categories indicate that they were happy enough with the implementation of this model of assessment. Finally, the field try-out activity with a quasi-experimental design resulted in effective use of the assessment model. All of the five statistical data from five try-out classes show significant differences between pre-test and post-test. Thus, it is concluded that the authentic assessment model could effectively be used to assess the teaching of spoken skills of Bahasa Indonesia to senior high school students.

Revisions of the product were made based on the results of analysis of the data from the try out activity. Comments and suggestions from experts as well as teachers were referred in the product revising process. The revisions were made not only on the parts of the product which are supposed to be insufficient, but also on the parts of the product which are thought to be fairly sufficient or very sufficient when there were good comments for their improvement.