DISERTASI dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM, 2010

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

Prakondisi Implementasi Kebijakan Peningkatan Kompetensi Guru (Studi Multi Kasus pada SMP Negeri 6, SMP Santa Maria, dan MTs Negeri Mulawarman di Kota Banjarmasin). (Disertasi)

Acep Supriadi

Abstrak


Prakondisi implementasi kebijakan peningkatan kompetensi guru di sekolah sangat penting karena guru merupakan ujung tombak terdepan dalam penyelenggaraan pendidikan di sekolah. Orang yang paling bertanggung jawab untuk melaksanakan kebijakan meningkatkan kompetensi guru adalah kepala sekolah. Kepala sekolah bertanggung jawab penuh terhadap kemampuan guru dan berhak memberikan dukungan dan perlindungan kepada mereka. Kemampuan setiap kepala sekolah dalam melaksanakan kebijakan berbeda. Perbedaan itu terletak pada kemampuan mereka dalam melaksanakan prakondisi terhadap kebijakan. Prakondisi meliputi faktor komunikasi, sumber daya, disposisi sikap pelaksana, dan struktur birokrasi. Dalam praktek, hasil kondisi itu berbeda setiap sekolah bergantung kepada kasus masing-masing.

Penelitian ini bermaksud mengungkap lebih mendalam tentang prakondisi pelaksanaan kebijakan peningkatan kompetensi guru oleh kepala sekolah pada tiga sekolah di kota Banjarmasin yang memiliki karakteristik berbeda. Fokus penelitian ini tertuju pada dua fokus yaitu: (1) Prakondisi yang mendukung implementasi kebijakan peningkatan kompetensi guru yang dirinci berikut ini: (a) komunikasi mendukung pelaksanaan kebijakan peningkatan kompetensi guru di sekolah; (b) sumber daya mendukung implementasi kebijakan peningkatan kompetensi guru di sekolah; (c) disposisi sikap pelaksana mendukung implementasi kebijakan peningkatan kompetensi guru di sekolah; (d) struktur birokrasi mendukung implementasi kebijakan peningkatan kompetensi guru di sekolah. (2) Prakondisi kebijakan peningkatan kompetensi guru yang dilaksanakan di sekolah yang dirinci berikut ini: (a) komunikasi implementasi kebijakan peningkatan kompetensi guru yang dilaksanakan di sekolah; (b) sumber daya implementasi kebijakan peningkatan kompetensi guru yang dilaksanakan di sekolah; (c) disposisi sikap pelaksana implementasi kebijakan peningkatan kompetensi guru yang dilaksanakan di sekolah; dan (d) struktur birokrasi implementasi kebijakan peningkatan kompetensi guru yang dilaksanakan di sekolah.

Pendekatan penelitian yang digunakan adalah penelitian kualitatif dengan rancangan studi multi kasus. Teknik pengumpulan data menggunakan wawancara mendalam (indepth interviewing), observasi berperanserta, dan studi dokumentasi. Pengecekan kredibilitas data dilakukan dengan teknik triangulasi, pengecekan anggota, dan diskusi teman sejawat. Sedangkan pengecekan auditabilitas data penelitian oleh para pembimbing sebagai "independent auditor" untuk mengauditnya. Data yang terkumpul melalui ketiga teknik tersebut diorganisir, ditafsir, dan dianalisis secara berulang-ulang, baik melalui analisis dalam kasus (individual cases analysis) maupun analisis lintas kasus (cross-cases analysis) guna menyusun konsep dan abstraksi temuan penelitian.

Hasil penelitian menunjukkan: Pertama, kualitas komunikasi pada tiga sekolah di kota Banjarmasin dilihat dari sumber yang menyampaikan, pesan yang disampaikan, media yang digunakan, dan penerima pesan yang dilaksanakan di sekolah cukup mendukung pelaksanaan kebijakan sekolah. Komunikasi yang disampaikan sudah arif bijaksana, menarik, cermat, tepat sasaran, terbuka, bahkan sudah bernuansa agamis, tetapi disayangkan dalam komunikasi yang dilaksanakan belum sepenuhnya memperhatikan aspek situasi kondisi dengan gaya komunikasi yang berbeda sehingga terkesan arogan. Kedua, kualitas sumber daya yang tersedia cukup mendukung pelaksanaan kebijakan sekolah, terutama bila dilihat dari ketersediaan fisik peralatan baik secara kuantitas maupun kualitas, dan dana pembiayaan secara kuantitas baik namun kualitas masih kurang dan sedikit parah  dilihat dari dimensi sumber daya manusia yang tersedia baik secara kuantitas maupun kualitas masih kurang. Ketiga, kualitas disposisi sikap pelaksana cukup mendukung, kepala sekolah mengetahui apa yang harus dilaksanakan dan memiliki motivasi yang tinggi, namun dalam melaksanakan tidak memiliki kemampuan yang sama. Keempat, kualitas struktur birokrasi cukup mendukung, dapat dilihat dari efisiensi birokrasi yang diterapkan sudah sederhana tidak berbelit-belit, penggunaan acuan/SOP belum mengarah pada visi misi sekolah, koordinasi kurang, dan pemanfaatan sumber daya sudah optimal namun dari pelaksanaan belum mengenai sasaran. Kelima, komunikasi yang dilaksanakan dengan berbagai pendekatan formal dan nonformal baik yang dilakukan melalui rapat internal, rapat guru, surat edaran, pemberitahuan dengan pengeras suara antar kelas atau pada saat upacara dan papan pengumuman, sampai diskusi kecil antar guru. Keenam, sumber daya yang dilaksanakan dengan mengadakan pelatihan, lokakarya, seminar, MGMP, penelitian, diskusi, dan penataan ruang guru. Ketujuh, disposisi sikap pelaksana yang dilaksanakan sekalipun belum sepenuhnya terbuka, namun sudah memudahkan, memberikan solusi, dan mampu mendorong keinginan untuk berbuat lebih baik. Kedelapan, struktur birokrasi yang dilaksanakan mengarah pada efisiensi dan sudah sederhana, mempunyai pembagian tugas dan pemisahan tanggung jawab antara kepala sekolah, wakasek, dan guru, namun disayangkan koordinasi diantara mereka kurang baik dan banyak yang melupakan standar acuan visi misi yang semestinya diacu dengan baik.

Saran-saran dari penelitian ini antara lain disampaikan kepada: (1) Kantor Dinas Pendidikan Nasional dan Departemen Agama diharapkan menjadwal secara periodik kunjungan ke sekolah-sekolah agar mengetahui persis permasalahan di sekolah secara objektif dan tidak hanya menerima laporan tertulis saja; (2) Sekolah melalui kepala sekolah diharapkan tetap menjalin hubungan baik dengan guru, mengadakan kunjungan kelas secara rutin dan terprogram misal dalam seminggu dua kali untuk memberikan saran-saran perbaikan, selalu memberikan motivasi kepada mereka, serta kepala sekolah dalam hal pengembangan proses pembelajaran harus dapat memberikan tanggung jawab sepenuhnya kepada guru; (3) Peneliti dan peneliti lain diharapkan selalu mengembangkan lebih jauh lagi kajian tentang implementasi kebijakan peningkatan kompetensi guru karena hal ini sangat urgen; dan (4) Program studi manajemen pendidikan diharapkan menjadi bahan replikasi keilmuan dalam bidang kajian yang sejenis ke arah memperkaya khasanah ilmu manajemen pendidikan.

Asbtract:

 

The preconditioned implementation of the teacher's competency improvement policy at schools is very essential due to the teachers are the spearhead in carrying out education at schools. The most responsible person in carrying out the policy to improve teacher's competency is the principal. The principal has full responsibility toward capability of the teachers and has right to give support and protection to them. Each principal has different capability in carrying out the policy. The difference lies on their capabilities in performing precondition toward the policy. This precondition includes communication, resources, attitude disposition of the executives, and bureaucratic structure. In practice, result of the condition at each school was different depended on each case.

This research was designed to reveal more deeply the preconditioned implementation of the teacher's competency improvement policy by the principal at three junior high schools in Banjarmasin, which have different characteristics. This research has two focuses: (1) precondition, which supports implementation of the teacher's competency improvement policy is as follows (a) communication that supports implementation of the teacher's competency improvement policy at schools; (b) resources that support implementation of the teacher's competency improvement policy at schools; (c) attitude disposition of the executive that supports implementation of the teacher's competency improvement policy at schools; (d) bureaucratic structure that supports implementation of the teacher's competency improvement policy at schools. (2) Precondition of the teacher's competency improvement policy, which was carried out at schools are (a) communication in implementing the teacher's competency improvement policy at schools; (b) resources in implementing the teacher's competency improvement policy at schools; (c) attitude disposition of the executive in implementing the teacher's competency improvement policy at schools; (d) bureaucratic structure in implementing the teacher's competency improvement policy at schools.

This research used qualitative approach and multi-case study design. Technique in collecting data used in-depth interviewing, participative observation, and documentary study. Checking on data credibility used triangulation, member checking, and coworker discussion. Checking on data auditability of the research was carried out by the supervisors as "independent auditor". The collected data through those three techniques was organized, interpreted, and analyzed repeatedly, both through individual case analysis and cross-case analysis in order to construct concept and abstract of the research's findings.

Results of the research showed: First, quality of the communication at three junior high schools in Banjarmasin, which was reviewed from the informant, extended messages, applied media, and recipient of the messages that were carried out at schools, gave sufficient support in implementing the school's policy. The extended communication seemed prudent, attractive, accurate, right to the target, opened, and religious nuance, but unfortunately, the communication has not completely concerned on conditional situation aspect along with different communication style, therefore, it sounded arrogant. Second, quality of the available resources was sufficient in supporting the school's policy implementation, especially when it was reviewed from physical availability of the equipments, both quantitatively and qualitatively, as well as good quantity funding, but less quality and a little severe when it was reviewed from the available human resources dimension in which both quantity and quality were less. Third, quality of the executive's attitude disposition gives sufficient support, the principal recognized what to do and had high motivation, but had different capabilities in implementation. Fourth, quality of the bureaucratic structure gave sufficient support, which can be seen from the simple-applied bureaucratic efficiency, the use of reference/SOP has not directed to vision and mission of the school, less coordination, and optimal resources utilization, but the implementation has not hit the target. Fifth, communication was carried out, using both formal and informal approach, through internal meeting, meeting among teachers, circular letters, notification using loud speaker to the entire classes or during ceremony and on notification board, as well as discussion among teachers. Sixth, the resources were improved through training, workshops, seminars, MGMP, research, discussion, and making up the teacher's room. Seventh, even though attitude disposition of the executive has not completely opened, it facilitated, provided solution, and it could support to do better. Eighth, the implemented bureaucratic structure has led to simple and efficient forms, having job description and responsibility division among principal, vice-principal, and teachers, but unfortunately, coordination among them was worse and mostly forget the vision and mission standard, which should be well-directed.

This research gives some suggestions to: (1) the Department of National Education and Department of Religious Affairs, which should schedule their visits to any school periodically in order to recognize the exact problem at the school objectively, not just from the written report; (2) Through its principal, the school is expected to work out good relationship with teachers, perform routine and programmed visits, twice a week for instance, to give suggestion for improvement, motivation, as well as in developing learning process, the principal should deliver full responsibility to the teachers; (3) The researcher and the other ones should develop a review about implementation of the teacher's competency improvement policy because this is very urgent; and (4) Study program of education management should be used as material of scientific replication on similar review in order to enrich the scientific riches in management of education.