DISERTASI dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM, 2010

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

Identifikasi Kesulitan yang Ditemui Guru dalam Pembelajaran Geografi Berdasarkan Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP) pada SMP Negeri Se-Kabupaten Gowa. (Tesis)

Haslita Rahmawati Hasan

Abstrak


Sukses tidaknya implementasikan kurikulum  sangat dipengaruhi oleh kemampuan guru yang akan menerapkan dan mengaktualisasikan kurikulum tersebut dalam pembelajaran. Kemampuan guru tersebut terutama berkaitan dengan pengetahuan dan pemahaman mereka terhadap implementasi kurikulum, serta tugas yang dibebankan padanya. Tidak jarang kegagalan implementasi kurikulum di sekolah disebabkan kurangnya pemahaman guru terhadap tugas-tugas yang harus dilaksanakannya. Penyebab terjadinya kesulitan guru dalam pembelajaran geografi dikarenakan: (1) proses sosialisasi kurikulum yang berlaku belum dilaksanakan secara menyeluruh; (2) pembinaan dan pengembangan terhadap sumber daya guru belum memadai, akibatnya pemahaman dan penafsiran mengenai KTSP sangat terbatas; dan (3) masih dijumpai disparitas fasilitas pendidikan antar sekolah, hal ini tentunya akan menghambat keterlaksanaan implementasi KTSP, karena KTSP lebih berorientasi pada kemampuan praktik (skill) daripada segala teori dan konsep pengetahuan.

Kenyataan ini mengakibatkan pembelajaran yang dilaksanakan masih bersifat konvensional, di mana keterlibatan guru dalam menanamkan konsep pembelajaran masih sangat diperlukan. Akibatnya, dominasi guru dalam pembelajaran tidak dapat dihindari guna mencapai tingkat kompetensi yang diharapkan. Metode ceramah tetap menjadi pilihan, sehingga pembelajaran yang berpusat pada siswa. Hal ini mengakibatkan fungsi guru sebagai fasilitator dan motivator dalam mengawasi, membimbing serta mengarahkan pemahaman siswa terhadap suatu konsep pembelajaran tidak dapat terlaksana secara optimal. Dengan adanya KTSP diharapkan celah kelemahan dan kekurangan yang terdapat dalam kurikulum sebelumnya bisa diperbaiki, baik pada tatanan perencanaan, pelaksanaan, maupun evaluasi.

Penelitian deskriptif ini bertujuan mengidentifikasi dan memperoleh gambaran tentang kesulitan yang dialami para guru dalam pelaksanaan KTSP yang mencakup perencanaan, pelaksanaan, dan evaluasi pembelajaran. Subjek dalam penelitian ini adalah guru geografi di SMP Negeri se-Kabupaten Gowa. Instrumen yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah angket dengan validitas 98%. Teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah mendeskripsikan tiap deskriptor, indikator, dan sub variabel dalam instrumen penelitian yang dibandingkan dengan skor rata-rata harapan.

Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa guru geografi di SMP Negeri Se-Kabupaten Gowa mengalami kesulitan dengan kualifikasi sedang dalam melaksanakan KTSP yang mencakup perencanaan pembelajaran mengalami kesulitan sebesar 66,21%, pelaksanaan pembelajaran mengalami kesulitan sebesar 77,40%, dan evaluasi pembelajaran mengalami kesulitan sebesar 67,89%. Kurangnya persiapan dalam menyiapkan materi dan skenario pembelajaran (perangkat pembelajaran/RPP), serta pengalokasian waktu dalam perencanaan pembelajaran; kurangnya waktu dan sarana prasarana dalam menerapkan metode pembelajaran pada pelaksanaan pembelajaran; juga dalam melaksanakan evaluasi guru sulit menyusun instrumen penilaian terutama tes tertulis. Hal tersebut mengakibatkan para guru mengalami kesulitan dalam melaksanakan KTSP.

Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, disimpulkan bahwa  penyebab kesulitan yang dialami guru SMP Negeri se-Kabupaten Gowa dalam melaksanakan KTSP selama proses pembelajaran yang mendominasi adalah waktu yang kurang memadai, sehingga para guru mengalami kesulitan dalam perencanaan proses pembelajaran yang berimbas pada pelaksanaan pembelajaran dan juga evaluasinya. Untuk memaksimalkan pelaksanaan KTSP hendaknya dikembangkan secara sinergis antara siswa, guru, dan sekolah. Oleh sebab itu, disarankan bagi guru untuk meningkatkan pemahaman tentang Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP), meningkatkan kemampuan dalam mengajar sehingga terciptanya suasana yang lebih kondusif dalam proses pembelajaran. Karena adanya beberapa guru yang belum mengadakan program remedial, pengayaan, maupun evaluasi program, diharapkan agar para guru melaksanakannya sesuai dengan ketentuan sekolah, serta mengingat adanya keterbatasan waktu, maka diharapkan para guru mau membuat hand out untuk siswa, dan lebih banyak memberikan tugas rumah pada siswa.

 

Abstract:

The success or the failure of curriculum implementation was greatly influenced by teachers' ability, in which they were going to apply and actualize the curriculum within instruction. The teachers' ability was specificallys related to their knowledge and conceptualization of the curriculum, and the duties given to them. Sometimes, the failure of curriculum implementation at school was caused by the lack of teachers' understanding toward their duties that should have been carried on. The causes which resulted in difficulties faced by the teachers in geographic instruction were: (1) the process of curriculum socialization had not done thoroughly; (2) supervising and developing toward teachers' resources had not been satisfying; and (3) there were so many disparities of facilities found among schools; this, undoubtedly,  would halt the implementation of KTSP because KTSP tended to focus on skills rather than theories and knowledge concepts.

This reality resulted that the carried on instruction activities became conventional, in which teachers' involvement in grounding the concept within instruction was importantly needed. As a consequence, the teachers' domination within the instruction could not be avoided anymore in order to reach the degree of the expected competence. Lecturing method still became a choice so that the instruction was not students' centered. This condition resulted that the condition in which the teacher function as a facilitator and a motivator in supervising, guiding and directing students' understanding toward certain concept of learning did not run optimally. By the existence of KTSP, it was expected that the weakness and the deficiency of the previous curriculum could be improved, as in planning, implementation, and evaluation.

This descriptive study aimed at identifying and getting description about difficulties experienced by the teachers in carrying on KTSP including planning, implementation, and evaluation of the instruction. The subjects of the study were the geographic teachers of state junior high schools in entire Gowa Regency. The instrumentation used in the study was questionnaires with 98 percent validity. Data analyzing technique used was describing each descriptor, indicator, and sub-variable within research instrument which was then compared with the expected average score.

The result of the study showed that the geographic teachers  of state junior high schools in entire Gowa regency experienced difficulties classified as moderate in implementing KTSP including planning the instruction 66.21%, implementing the instruction 77.40%, and evaluating the instruction 67.89%.The lack of awareness in preparing materials and instructional scenario (instructional stuff and lesson plan), allocating time for instructional planning, the lack of time and facilities in implementing the instructional method within teaching and learning activities and also evaluating in which the teachers faced difficulties in designing scoring instrument especially for written test had already been the causes of their difficulties in implementing KTSP.

Based on the result of the study, it could be concluded that the major cause of difficulties experienced by the geographic teachers of state junior high schools in entire Gowa region in implementing KTSP within instructional process was the limited time so that the teachers faced difficulties in planning the instructional process which affected toward the implementation of the instruction and also the evaluation. In order to maximize the implementation of KTSP, it was necessary to develop the aspects including students, teachers, and the schools synergically. Therefore, it was suggested for the teachers to improve their understanding about KTSP curriculum, develop the ability which resulted in more conducive condition in instruction process. Since there were many teachers who had not carried on remedial, enrichment and also evaluation program, it was expected that they carried them all according to the rules that had been required by the schools; moreover, in considering the limitation of time, it was hoped that the teachers made hand outs for the students, and gave them more homework.