DISERTASI dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM, 2010

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

Manajemen Kurikulum Pendidikan Seni Tari di Lembaga Pendidikan Tenaga Kependidikan Studi Multi-situs di Universitas Ngremo, Universitas Gambang, dan Universitas Beskalan. (Disertasi)

Wahjudhi Dwidjowinoto

Abstrak


Guru seni tari mempunyai tugas dan tanggung jawab yang berat dalam pengembangan, pelestarian, dan pembinaan kesenian kepada generasi penerus. Pendidikan seni tari memang mempunyai keunikan tersendiri bila dibandingkan dengan mata pelajaran lain. Sudah sejak lama ada pendapat yang saling bertentangan antara para pendidik dan seniman tari. Para seniman tari berpendapat bahwa tari sebagai seni akan mencair dan turun derajatnya apabila diajarkan oleh seseorang yang bukan seniman. Sebaliknya para pendidik berpendapat bahwa dialah yang paling tepat mengajar tari di pendidikan umum. Karena guru mengetahui pengalaman dan kegiatan siswa setiap hari, sehingga lebih mudah merencanakan program tari yang seimbang. Pada kenyataannya tidak setiap seniman sesuai mengajar tari di sekolah umum, demikian juga tidak semua guru/pendidik memahami permasalahan tentang tari. Sebagai pemecahnnya dirasakan perlu ada lembaga yang dapat memenuhi kebutuhan guru tari yang dapat mengajar seni tari di sekolah umum. Kebutuhan guru seni tari di sekolah umum, sama kebutuhnnya dengan guru pendidikan jasmani yang sudah lama ada lembaga pendidikannya.

Manajemen kurikulum pendidikan guru seni tari ini sangat menarik bila diteliti melalui sudut pandang manajemen pendidikan, dan cukup urgen karena sepanjang pengetahuan peneliti belum banyak penelitian tentang kurikulum pendidikan seni, terutama kurikulum LPTK pendidikan seni tari.

Fokus penelitian: (1) perencanaan kurikulum pada awal berdirinya pendidikan seni tari di LPTK, (2) organisasi kurikulum pada kurikulum tahun 2008 jenjang strata 1 pendidikan seni tari di LPTK, (3) implementasi kurikulum tahun 2008 jenjang strata 1 pendidikan seni tari di LPTK yang meliputi: pengembangan materi pembelajaran, sarana-prasarana pembelajaran, SDM pelaksana kurikulum, dan (4) pengawasan pelaksanaan kurikulum pendidikan seni tari di LPTK.

Tujuan umum penelitian ini adalah mendeskripsikan manajemen kurikulum pada pendidikan seni tari di lembaga pendidikan tenaga kependidikan. Tujuan khusus penelitian adalah mendeskripsikan manajemen kurikulum pendidikan seni tari di lembaga pendidikan tenaga kependidikan sesuai dengan fokus penelitian.

Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif. Pengumpulan data melalui observasi berperan serta wawancara mendalam, dan studi dokumen. Pengabsahan data dengan dependabilitas, dan kredibilitas. Analisis data:dengan analisis data situs tunggal dan analisis lintas situs.

Hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan sebagai berikut.

Pertama, perencanaan kurikulum pendidikan seni tari LPTK pada awal berdirinya, dengan memadukan kurikulum pendidikan seni tari murni, tari daerah setempat, dengan kurikulum kependidikan seni rupa LPTK.

Kedua, pengorganisasian kurikulum tahun 2008 pendidikan seni tari LPTK pada tiap semester atas dasar pertimbangan: tingkat kesulitan matakuliah teori maupun matakuliah praktek, matakuliah pengetahuan disusul matakuliah yang memerlukan pemahaman, matakuliah yang perlu analisis-sintesis; untuk menyiapkan fisik mahasiswa diberikan matakuliah Olah Tubuh, matakuliah praktek tari dari yang rendah tingkat kesulitannya sampai yang rumit, dibuat berjenjang dengan disertai prasarat, matakuliah tari ciri daerah di diutamakan, berusaha lulusannya mempunyai kompetensi sesuai tuntutan matapelajaran Seni Budaya di SMP dan SMA, pengorganisasian kurikulum pendidikan seni tari LPTK memberikan bekal penalaran ilmiah melalui penulisan skripsi, bekal kepribadian, kependidikan, dan latihan sebagai guru melalui PPL, bekal penciptaan seni tari melalui Karya Tari, bekal penmgabdi kepada masyarakat melalui KKN, menyediakan kelompok matakuliah untuk profesi selain profesi guru tari, memberikan matakuliah pengayaan materi praktek seni tari bagi mahasiswa yang dapat selesai 7 semester, penulisan skripsi ada 3 pilihan bentuk.

 Ketiga, implikasi kurikulum pendidikan seni tari LPTK: (a) pengembangan materi pembelajaran pendidikan seni tari LPTK dilaksanakan secara terkoordinasi dan secara individu atau tim pengajar, ada matakuliah muatan lokal tertentu yang dilaksanakan dengan kegiatan nyantrik. (b) sarana-prasarana pembelajaran pendidikan seni tari LPTK dilaksanakan oleh laboratorium jurusan, (c) SDM pelaksana kurikulum, rekrutmen dengan pemagangan, pembinaan resmi dan tidak resmi, peningkatan kualitas SDM sesuai dengan ketentuan peningkatan kualitas tenaga akademis di perguruan tinggi, komunikasi dan informasi menggunakan: komunikasi searah dan komunikasi timbal balik

. Keempat, pengawasan pelaksanaan kurikulum melalui pengawasan melekat, rapat jurusan, jurnal kemajuan perkuliahan, dan monitoring pelaksanaan perkuliahan.

Penelitian ini merekomendasikan: (1) Matakuliah Karya Tari dan Skripsi di pendidikan seni tari LPTK tidak merupakan matakuliah pilihan. (2) Kegiatan nyantrik perlu dipertahankan dan dilaksanakan oleh semua pendidikan seni tari LPTK. (3) Perpustakaan pendidikan seni tari LPTK dapat dilengkapi VCD tari hasil Karya Tari dan hasil nyantrik. (4) Tradisi dosen membuat karya tari dan dipentaskan hendaknya tidak hanya dipentaskan di kampus masing-masing, tetapi juga di LPTK yang mempunyai jurusan/prodi pendidikan seni tari. (5) Selain matakuliah Olah Tubuh, Yoga Asanas (senam yoga) juga penting diberikan kepada mahasiswa pendidikan seni tari LPTK agar kelenturan fisik, daya tahan tubuh, dan kepekaan rasa mahasiswa bertambah baik.

 

Abstract:

Teachers who teach the art of choreography have a heavy burden and responsibility in developing, preserving, and building up the arts for the next generation. Choreographic education has its own uniqueness in comparison with other subjects. There have been contradictory opinions between the educators and the dancers. The dancers stated that the choreography (folk dance) would be weakened and humiliated when it was taught by someone who was not a professional dancer. On the contrary, the educators stated that they were the right ones who could teach the choreography in general education. As the teachers have already been familiar with daily activities and experiences of the students, therefore, they would be easier in designing a balanced dance program. In fact, neither every dancer is suitable to teach dance at a public school, nor all teachers/educators understand the problems of dancing/ choreography. As a solution for such a problem, a specific institution that could produce qualified choreographic teachers was required. The need of choreographic teachers in public schools is the same with the need of physical education teachers.

The uniqueness of this curriculum management, which produces the teachers of choreography, is very attractive to be studied through the point of view of educational management, and it is considered so urgent due to the fact that so far the researcher has not found any similar research, especially that is concerning with the LPTK curriculum of the choreographic education.

The focuses of the research are: (1) the management of the curriculum design at the beginning of the choreographic education establishment at LPTK, (2) the curriculum organizational management of 2008, bachelor degree on choreographic education at LPTK, (3) the curriculum implementation management of 2008, bachelor degree on choreographic education at LPTK, which comprises of management of curriculum development, management of curriculum means and infrastructure, and human resource management of the curriculum executive, and (4) the monitoring management on the implementation of the choreographic education curriculum at LPTK.

The general objective of this research is to describe the curriculum management on choreographic education at LPTK. Furthermore, the specific objective of this research is to describe the curriculum management on choreographic education at LPTK in accordance with the focus of the research.

The research uses a qualitative approach. The data have been collected through participative observation, interview, and documentary study. The data have been validated through triangulation, dependability, and credibility. The data analysis have been done by using singular-site data analysis, and cross-sites data analysis.

The results of the research are summarized as follow.

 First, at the beginning of the establishment of LPTK, the management of choreographic education curriculum planning of LPTK was integrated with the educational curriculum of pure folk dance, local traditional dance, and educational curriculum of fine arts at LPTK.

Second, the organization management of the choreographic education curriculum of LPTK in each semester of curriculum 2008, was based on the following considerations: the difficulty levels of theoretical subjects and practical subjects, general knowledge subjects were followed by the subjects requiring deeper thinking/ understanding, the subjects requiring analyzing and synthesizing skills are used to help students be ready to do beautiful body building, dancing practice from simple to complicated one has been graded, the features of local dances have been emphasized. It has been planned that the Junior and Senior High School graduates have the expected dancing competence. The management of choreographic education curriculum organization of LPTK offered logical reasoning ways such as thesis writing, character / personality building, teacher training through special apprentice activities, its prerequisite, and given top priority on traditional dance, in order to establish competent graduates that conform to the demand of Cultural Arts subject at the Junior and Senior High Schools, The management of choreographic education curriculum organization of LPTK offered scientific reasoning means such as writing thesis, building up personality, educational matters, and practicing as the real teacher, creating a choreography, providing social service through obligatory social action internship, providing subject category for other professions rather than choreographic teacher, providing subject of choreographic practices enrichment for the students, which could be completed in 7 semesters, and 3 options in writing the thesis.

 Third, the management of the choreographic education curriculum implication of LPTK are: (a) The management of the choreographic education curriculum development of LPTK was coordinated individually or the educator team, specific subject through apprenticeship, (b) The management of the choreographic education means and infrastructure can be done by laboratory of the department, (c) The human resource management of the curriculum executive is carried out through apprenticeship, providing official and informal build-up, improving quality of the human resources that conforms to provision of quality improvement for the academician at the university, communication and information apply: one-way and feedback communications.

Fourth, the monitoring management in implementing curriculum was carried out through close supervision, departmental meeting, journal of lecturing progress, and monitoring implementation of the lecturing.

 This research recommends the following points: (1) Choreography and Thesis subject in choreographic education of LPTK are not optional. (2) Apprenticeship should be preserved and carried out by all choreographic education of LPTK. (3) Library of the choreographic education should be equipped with VCDs that show the products of choreography and apprenticeship. (4) The lecturers should be active in the tradition of creating different aspects of choreography and their creation should be presented not only on their own campuses, but also at other proper places, (5) Besides Physical Exercises, meditation is also required for the students of choreographic education in LPTK in order to improve their physical diffraction, stamina and sensitivities.