DISERTASI dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM, 2016

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar


Areta Puspa




ABSTRACT: This study is aimed to produce E-module of writing a report for students of Food Processing Technology study program who join apprenticeship program. This study was a research and development method that was adapted from Borg and Gall (1996), and Latief (2014), to be precise (1) investigation of problem identification, (2) developing materials, (3) experts validation, (4) product try out, and (5) final product. The result of development was four units that were (1) Aspects of writing, (2) Planning, (3) Drafting, (4) Revising and Editing employing Writing Process Approach. The product was as the supplementary materials in the form of PDF File that used deductive learning in each unit providing explanation, examples (models), and practices. This result of this study is benefit for the students’ independent learning in writing their apprenticeship report. Recommendations for the future researcher are also discussed.

Key words: E-module, writing a report, food processing technology

Writing is challenging to learn by foreign language students since they should produce and transform their ideas by involving some aspects or elements. It is supported by Tesema (2005) and Fidalgo et al. (2009:129) that learning writing in English as a foreign language is complex and cognitively demanding struggle for most of English language students. As writers, some students have ideas but they are difficult to generate and arrange ideas and interpret these ideas into readable text as well (Richard et al., 2002:309 and Nation, 2009:119). It means that the writers should present ideas clearly by considering the appropriate components, such as content, vocabulary and grammar. To this complicated activity, Nunan (1999:31) agreed that it is difficult assignment to construct a good piece of writing, even in their native language. Accordingly, becoming master in writing is difficult for the students especially for EFL students.

Students of vocational high school are included as EFL students. Vocational high school is the school that is prepared the students to face professional fields after they graduate. Based on the English syllabus, writing skill is should be achieved by the students of vocational high school. One of the vocational high school students that needed learning writing was SMK Negeri 5 Jember. This school employed 2013 curriculum in which the syllabus are designed by the English teacher as stated in BNSP (The Board of Education National Standard). It proved by the data from preliminary study (investigation of problem identification). Besides, through interview the English teacher, she explained that some teaching and learning materials could be downloaded by the students through Edmodo because this school starts to employ IT based teaching and learning process. Edmodo is a social network on educational website that is functioned to improve the teaching and learning process by sharing ideas, problems, and helpful tips involved teachers and students, and parents also join the class to know the process (Cauley, 2013:1). The teacher also informed that adaptive materials (English subject) and productive materials (Food Processing Technology subject) should be integrated and given based on the semester. However, the materials for the twelfth grade students cannot be delivered according to the syllabus. This is due to the fact that the twelfth grade students do not have enough time to learn writing a report since they have to join apprenticeship program and national examination. In fact, after the apprenticeship is over, they will be asked to make a written report in English which unfortunately they have not learned yet. Thus, they need to learn about how to write a written report.

During the teaching and learning process, the English teachers use Electronic Book (e-Book) packaged from Kemendikbud to cover the students’ needs. They also use the E-module that is written by the English teacher. Based on reviewing those books, in term of writing a report, the writing process approach was not employed. The students are asked to write rough draft in those books without the teacher’s explanation on how to compose the draft. Those books consist of some expressions to present a report, grammar used (reported speech), simple example of a report, and making rough draft. The E-module sets the daily test in the form of multiple choices. In short, those books do not cover the students’ needs in writing a report.

The importance of learning how to make a written report is also supported by alumni testimonies. Through filling in the questionnaire, he explained that in the past, writing reports in the form of English was a standard job in the company. Now, the reports are divided into two forms, English and Indonesia. He also stated that the writing reports are the system in the job. One division and another are interconnected with this system. In addition, another alumnus also confirmed the importance of having the skills in writing a report in the professional field. He worked in a quality control division and made written report in Indonesian. However, he knew that other division reported their work in the form of English. He also knew that there were two forms in reports, English and Indonesia. It can be concluded that writing reports is an important skill that is required in the professional field.

To encourage students for professional field, this school is starting to implement the IT based teaching and learning process. Based on the interview result with the man of Public Relationship Division, it was found that this school tries to apply the online system through Edmodo or school website. Learning material, students work, and assessments are conducted by online, especially for the examination try out. There were two study programs that apply the online system in the teaching-learning process, namely fishery and agronomy study program. This school tries to employ the online system following the government recommendation.

In case of the government, teaching and learning in vocational high school have been formulated. Based on the Regulation of the Minister of Education and Culture no 70 the year of 2013 (Depdikbud, 2013), it is taught based on the users’ needs (students’ needs) through developing students’ potency. To support the learning on producing a good writing, it is important for the educators to provide materials that are suitable for the students of study program. Appropriately, it will be good if English for Specific Purposes (ESP) is employed. Based on Hutchinson and Waters (1991:16), ESP is divided into two main types namely, English for Academic Purposes (EAP) and English for Occupational Purposes (EOP). This study used the term EAP that is for academic study. Based on Barnard and Zemach (2003: 310), EAP can be roughly divided into two camps, such English needed to complete academic course and English used in academic communities. This study belonged to the first camps in which the students were required to write the apprenticeship report in English. Thus, it is a must for the teachers to develop appropriate learning material to support the students’ needs.

With the purpose of providing appropriate materials, the students should recognize the writing process to help them writing their report easily. Writing process is the sequence learning that the writers think over  step by step on paper until the ideas written are clear and understandable (Langan, 2008:16-17 and Calderonello, et al., 1983:5). It is important for the writers to consider how the readers can comprehend the writers’ perspective. Additionally, the writing process approach can lead the students to be an independent producer of text through following tasks provided (Hyland, 2003:10). Therefore, the writers can develop their ideas successfully through a writing process approach.

Writing process approach is the approach employed to facilitate the students in writing. As mentioned previously, the students will be asked to write a report after they joined the apprenticeship program since it has not been learnt. Module is one of the learning materials that can be used independently. Module is a standard in learning process that is developed in line with other teaching materials. Russel in Vembrianto (1976: 46) stated that a module is an instructional package dealing with a single conceptual unit of subject matter. Module is a systematic learning material for independent study covering materials itself, method, and evaluation (Hanum, 2014: 49). Additionally, Vembrianto (1976: 48) defined that module is the smallest unit and complete providing lesson planning systematically, learning objectives explicitly and specifically, and learning material for self-instructional purpose. Thus, module is the smallest conceptual unit that covers learning objectives, method, materials, and evaluation for the students’ independent learning.

Dealing with independent learning through module, one of the studies was conducted by Yang, et al. (2013) focusing on common-core module as a bridge of general English and medical English. The module facilitated the students to face global profession as physicians. Another study was carried out by Puspitasari (2013) who developed e-module for listening comprehension as the supplementary material for the tenth grade students in the form of interactive CD to support the students for independent study. Moreover, there were some researchers that used writing a report. Dalton (2008) conducted an explanatory research in term of foreign language engineering writer that used memo report in analyzing linguistics and organizations term of memo. In 2005, Helgesen conducted a qualitative research that described four reporting forms that work in different intelligences and level of processing. Moreover, Neuman et al. (2009) conducted an experimental research by applying wiki as the component of blended learning. Writing a report was applied as the students’ practices in learning. Thus, the previous studies proved that developing module was for students’ independent study and writing a report used as a specific competence.

In this study, the researcher developed E-module of writing a report for students who will join apprenticeship program. The E-module, as the supplementary materials, was developed based on the writing process approach to cover the students’ needs in autonomous learning. The materials focused on writing a report in which English for Food Processing Technology, especially for the twelfth grade students. The E-module provided deductive learning in each unit that consists of theories (explanation), examples (models), and practices (exercises and test) that eventually can lead students to finish their writing report for apprenticeship program independently.


This study was a research and development method that was adapted from Borg and Gall (1996), and Latief (2014) to be precise (1) investigation of problem identification, (2) developing materials, (3) experts validation, (4) product try out, and (5) final product. The investigation of problem identification was used to explore the weaknesses and develop the new one to solve the weaknesses that was the foundations to develop the E-module. In this stage, the researcher interviewed the English teacher by semi-unstructured interview, reviewed the English books through material evaluation checklist, interview the authority (a man of Public Relationship Division) through semi-unstructured interview, and the alumni by filling the questioner given. The data from investigation of problem identification was elaborated as the foundations to produce the E-module. Then, developing materials was adapted and adopted the writing process approach taken from Blanchard and Root (2004), Langan (2008), and Leki (1998). For the experts’ validation, the expert of writing and the practitioner were involved to evaluate the product completeness. Both validation experts were asked to fill the evaluation sheet in the form of comment based on the criteria given. The expert of writing evaluated the main criteria of content, organization, language, task, level of difficulties, and design. The practitioner evaluated the main criteria of content, applicability, and simplicity. After the product was evaluated, the product try out was conducted in the students of Food Processing Technology study program who had joined the apprenticeship program to know the implementation of the product. Last, final product was ready after the all phases were done.



The Developed Materials

Previously, in the developed product, the researcher developed the materials to be three units. Unit 1 was Planning that consisted of three activities, namely Activity 1 was Determining topic through free writing, Activity 2 was Generating ideas through brainstorming, and Activity 3 was Organizing ideas through making outlines). Then, Unit 2 was Drafting that involved two activities , such as Activity 1 was Composing topic sentence and supporting details, and Activity 2 was writing rough draft (writing introduction, writing body paragraphs, and writing conclusion and suggestion). Unit 3 was revising and editing that consisted of two activities, to be precise Activity 1 was revising a report (coherence and cohesion), and Activity 2 was Editing a report (language use, punctuation, and capitalization). This E-module also used deductive learning with the theme of food processing technology study program. The E-module was uploaded in Edmodo so that the teacher and the students communicated through it. On the other side, the researcher gave the teacher’s guide and the students’ guide in downloading the E-module and using Edmodo.

The Expert Validation and the Revision       

After the materials were produced, the materials were evaluated by two validation experts for the product completeness. The first expert is an English lecturer who has outstanding expertise in the writing. He is a professor at the State University of Malang. He had a certificate of writing in the classroom. The draft of the materials were given to the expert on January 21, 2016 and returned to the researcher on January 26, 2016. The expert feedback were the comments in each criterion. There were six main criteria that were adapted from Brown (2007), Hutchinson and Waters (1991), and Cunningsworth (1995) that formulated on evaluation sheet. Based on the expert comment, the researcher revised some parts in the E-module. First, the researcher had to add cover page before page of table of contents. Second, the researcher had to add a glossary at the back of the materials. Third, the researcher should add some images to make some objects in the materials clearly, for example the image of Ganyong. By giving the images, he stated that the students do not imagine what Ganyong is and they could know Ganyong from the image. Fourth, he also commented in some pages that showed grammatical mistakes, such on page 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, 19, 20, 25, 29, 34, and 40. The researcher revised the weaknesses points based on the expert comment. Additionally, the other parts of the materials were qualified that proved from the expert comment by writing ‘Yes’ that meant no revision required. Consequently, there were four points that the researcher had to revise and the experts said that the evaluation was done.

            After the materials were evaluated by the first expert, the materials were continued to be evaluated by the second expert.  The second expert is a practitioner who had experience as the chief of the Association of Teachers of English Subject of Vocational High School in Jember due to her experiences as a teacher trainer in IAPBE (Indonesia Australia Partnership in Basic Education). Additionally, she is an Assessor of Vocational High School Accreditation. The first draft materials were given on February 3, 2016 to February 18, 2016.  She evaluated three main criteria that were adapted from Hutchinson and Waters (1991), and Cunningsworth (1995). According to the feedback, she gave weak points that the draft must be revised. First, she gave comment that since the product is related to the school, the cover photos should be changed into the students’ photos in the school. If the other people photos were used, she worried that the researcher would take a charge for it, such as paying for some money. Second, she commented that the product employed writing process approach was good theoretically. However, the product needed one part at the beginning such aspects of writing to give the students from the simplest one. In other words, the organization should be revised. This part (aspects of writing) was taken from the subheadings in Unit 2 Drafting (composing topic sentence and supporting details), and Unit 3 Revising and Editing (coherence and cohesion, language use, punctuation, and capitalization). Third, she stated that the examples in the subheading of Language Use were inappropriate that were general English. The examples should be revised to English for Food Processing Technology. As a result, there were three weaknesses in the first draft given such as cover photos, organization, and the use of examples in part of Language Use. Then, the researcher revised the draft based on the feedback from the expert. Last, the researcher gave the draft revised on March 3, 2016 to March 15, 2016 and the expert said that the draft was done. It meant no revision required.

Product Try Out

After the product validation was done, the next stage was product try out. The product try out was conducted to the students of Food Processing Technology study program at SMKN 5 Jember who had joined the apprenticeship program. It was done after the students faced national examination in which the students could finish the E-module in a week. The English teacher and 28 of the twelfth grade students participated in the try-out since some students prepared to join the Students Competences Competition.

In case of the product try out, the researcher set up that the students had no class/ no meeting because of the apprenticeship program. In other words, the students did the E-module outside the classroom and then the students and the teacher could communicate through Edmodo. In addition, based on the teacher and the students’ statement, they were familiar with Edmodo. The product try out was done on April 10 to April 18, 2016.  First, the teacher uploaded the E-module on April 10. Second, on April 11, the teacher met the students to give the group code and explain what they should do. The all units in E-module should be finished by the students. Third, unit 1 could be finished and uploaded the result by the students on April 12. Fourth, unit 2 could be completed and uploaded the result by the students on April 13. Fifth, on April 16, the students could accomplish and uploaded unit 3. Last, unit 4 could be done by the students on April 18. However, some students uploaded the result of all units on April 18 since they had a problem on internet connection.

On the process in doing the E-module, the students were asked to fill the questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of seven open-questions for each unit. Moreover, in-depth interview was also done to clarify the students’ answers. Based on the students’ answers, some students’ difficulties in doing the E-module were found. First, 4 students mentioned the instruction on page 4 and 5 were unclear so they were a little bit confused. Therefore, the students discussed to their friends in comprehending the instructions. Second, 2 students were confused on page 12 (explanation and table) that disturb them in comprehending the explanation and the table provided. They stated that this part should add some instructions to make it clearer. Third, 4 students stated that on page 16 (Agreement of Pronouns and Nouns) and page 17 (Agreement of Possessives and Nouns or Pronouns) should be added a symbol or box to make both subheadings noticeably. Fourth, 5 students wrote that on page 31 should be added the word “Example” to make the example and the explanation more remarkable. Sixth, some students faced the problems on internet connection so they uploaded their result after the all units were done. Thus, the results from the questionnaire and interview to students were as the inputs for revised the E-module.

Besides the questionnaire and interview to the students, the researcher also gave the questionnaire for the English teacher and in-depth interview to clarify the English teacher answers. It functioned to know the teacher experiences in using the E-module on Edmodo. Based on the English teacher answers, the result was positive. He noted that through the E-module, the students can write their report independently. The content materials were clear in which focused on Food Processing Technology study program. The language was understandable and the use of variation boxes, symbols, fonts supported by the E-module were more attractive and colorful in design. Additionally, since the students were familiar with the use of Edmodo, they did not have problems. Therefore, positive inputs were obtained from the English teacher.

Final Product 

All in all, after the researcher did the process of investigation of problem identification, the development of product, expert validation and revision, and product try out and revision, and the final product is ready to implement. The final product was E-module of writing a report for Food Processing Technology students as the supplementary materials for the students’ independent learning consisting of learning objectives, teacher instructions, students’ activities, students worksheet, answers key, and evaluation sheets. This product is used for the students who will join the apprenticeship program that required them to write the English written report. This product is in the form of PDF File that can be used by uploading and downloading through Edmodo in which the teacher and the students are familiar with this educational social media. This product consists of four units according to writing process approach that can help and guide the students in writing their report. Unit 1 is aspects of writing consisting five activities, such (1) composing topic sentence and supporting details, (2) coherence and cohesion, (3) language use, (4) punctuation, and (5) capitalization. Unit 2 is planning consisting of three activities, to be precise (1) determining topic through free writing, (2) generating ideas through brainstorming, and (3) organizing ideas through making outlines. Unit 3 is drafting that consist of three activities, namely (1) writing introduction, (2) writing body paragraphs, and (3) writing conclusion and suggestion. Unit 4 is revising and editing that consist of two activities, such (1) revising a report and (3) editing a report. This E-module also provides deductive learning elaborating theories (explanations) and examples (models) at the beginning to give the students background knowledge, and it then is followed by practices (exercises and test).


The product materials were developed by using the writing process approach. Based on Langan (2008: 16-17) and Calderonello (1983: 5), writing process approach is the sequence approach that can lead the students to write their ideas clear and understandable. It is also supported by Hyland (2003:10) that the students can be an independent producer of texts by following writing process approach. Previously, the materials consisted of planning, drafting, revising and editing. The development materials were adapted and adopted from Blanchard and Root (2004), Langan (2008), and Leki (1998). However, the organization was revised since the experts said that the students need to learn from the smallest parts before they write their report, such aspects of writing. As a result, the materials are aspects of writing, planning, drafting, revising and editing. It is also support by the students’ answers that they can write their report independently by following the E-module.

Related to the students learning, this E-module is deductive learning to give the students background knowledge before they write the report. In each unit, it provided explanation, examples (models), and practices (exercises and tests). The use of deductive learning in this product is supported by some experts. According to Basturkmen (2010: 131), he noted that deductive refers to the students learning by presenting the explanation and example and then applying it to the tasks. Additionally, it is in line with Richards and Rodgers (2001: 4) and Stern (1983: 489) stated that deductive presents the presentation first and then it is followed by practices.  Moreover, it is supported by the expert’s statement that the E-module provides appropriate theories, examples (models), and practices. Therefore, the E-module uses deductive learning that provides explanation, examples (models), and tasks (exercises and tests) in every unit.

The product of this study is E-module in which the nature of module is for the students’ independent learning. It is supported by Hanum (2014: 49) that module is a systematic learning materials for independent study covering materials itself, method, and evaluation.  It is based on the fact that the students can write their report independently by following the E-module. Dealing with independent learning, the E-module focuses on writing a report that consists of learning objectives, teacher instructions, students’ activities, students’ worksheet, answer key, and evaluation sheet. Furthermore, it is supported by Vembrianto (1976: 49-48) that module is the smallest unit and complete providing lesson planning systematically, learning objectives explicitly and specifically, and learning material for self-instructional purpose.  It is a single conceptual unit of subject matter (Russel in Vembrianto, 1976: 46) in which focused on writing a report (basic competence 10.4 in English syllabus). Thus, this product of this research is E-module that consists of learning objectives, teacher instructions, students’ activities, students’ worksheet, answer key, and evaluation sheet focusing on writing a report.


The result of development is E-module which is used to cover the students’ needs that required them to write a report in English after the students joined the apprenticeship program. Since the students have no meeting, they are demanded to independent learning. The E-module, as the supplementary materials, is developed to fill the gap in which the materials are specific for academic purposes, specifically English for food processing technology. Employing writing process approach is appropriate for the students in writing their report step by step. Besides, the E-module provided deductive learning consisting of learning objectives, teacher instructions, students’ activities, students’ worksheet, answer key, and evaluation sheet focusing on writing a report that are expected for the students autonomous learning.


The product is ready to use, some recommendations are drawn for presented product use, disseminations, and future researcher. For the product use, first, the teacher should lead the students in writing their report to make sure they do not have problem and see their improvement in writing. Second, the students are suggested to read the E-module step by step to understand what should be written in their apprenticeship report. Third, the students could contact the teacher if they have problem in understanding the E-module. Fourth, the teachers and the students should read the user guide in using Edmodo to make sure that the E-module has been uploaded and the teacher and the students are involved in the same group. So the students know what they should do. For the dissemination, the E-module could be uploaded and downloaded not only in Edmodo but also the other educational social media with which the teacher and the students are familiar. Other schools with the same study program and needs could use this product. Through teachers’ forum or school visitations, the product could disseminate to larger communities. Moreover, for the future researchers, they could research the effectiveness of the product disseminations for the students who write a report in English and produce the same product with different theme or study program. .


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