DISERTASI dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM, 2016

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

Pengembangan Model Fasilitasi TIK Berbasis Permintaan (On Demand Based Facilitation) Untuk Meningkatkan Kompetensi TIK Guru SMK

wahyu nur hidayat

Abstrak


ABSTRAK


Hidayat, Wahyu Nur. 2016. Pengembangan Model Fasilitasi TIK Berbasis Permintaan (On Demand Based Facilitation) Untuk Meningkatkan Kompetensi TIK Guru SMK. Tesis. Pendidikan Kejuruan, Pascasarjana Universitas Negeri Malang. Pembimbing: (I) Dr. Muladi, S.T., M.T.,     (II) Dr. M. Alfian Mizar, M.P.


Kata kunci: Model Fasilitasi TIK, Pelatihan, Kompetensi, Guru SMK

Guru sebagai ujung tombak pendidikan, dituntut untuk memiliki kemampuan di bidang TIK. Tuntutan ini menjadi konsep dasar Kurikulum 2013 yang mengamanatkan pengintegrasian TIK dalam pembelajaran. Untuk mendukung konsep tersebut, dikeluarkan Permendikbud Nomor 45 Tahun 2015 yang mengamanatkan guru TIK dan KKPI untuk menyelenggarakan fasilitasi rekan sesama guru. Hasil observasi di SMK Negeri Kota Malang, ditemukan masalah utama, yaitu: a) pelatihan TIK untuk guru di sekolah rata-rata dilaksanakan 2 kali dalam satu tahun; b) materi pelatihan TIK yang diselenggarakan untuk guru tidak didasarkan pada kebutuhan guru; c) belum terdapat model bimbingan TIK untuk rekan sesama guru; dan d) guru TIK/KKPI mengalami kesulitan dalam mengorganisir peran dan tugas untuk menyusun program dan menyelenggarakan kegiatan fasilitasi TIK di sekolah.

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengungkap dan mendeskripsikan profil integrasi TIK dalam pembelajaran yang diselenggarakan guru SMK, mengidentifikasi kebutuhan materi pelatihan, mengembangkan model fasilitasi TIK melalui kegiatan pelatihan, dan melakukan uji coba model yang telah dikembangkan. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan adalah Research and Development (R&D). Secara garis besar, ada tiga langkah yang dilakukan, yaitu melaksanakan penelitian awal untuk mengetahui karakteristik guru yang berhubungan dengan integrasi TIK, mengembangkan grand design model konseptual fasilitasi TIK melalui kegiatan pelatihan untuk meningkatkan kompetensi guru SMK, dan melakukan uji efektivitas model.

Langkah-langkah yang dilakukan dalam melaksanakan penelitian awal, yaitu merancang penelitian, mengembangkan instrumen penelitian, mengumpulkan data, mengolah dan mengintepretasikan data, dan menemukan karakteristik guru tentang integrasi TIK dalam pembelajaran. Penelitian awal ini merupakan penelitian survei yang dilaksanakan di SMK Kota Malang pada tahun 2015. Sampel penelitian diambil sebesar 166 responden, yang diklasifikasikan berdasarkan rumpun mata pelajaran, dengan rincian 53 guru adaptif, 38 guru normatif, dan 75 guru produktif. Teknik pengambilan sampel menggunakan proportionate stratified random sampling. Langkah kedua adalah mengembangkan grand design model konseptual fasilitasi TIK melalui kegiatan pelatihan. Pengembangan model juga dilakukan melalui beberapa langkah, yaitu menyusun grand design model konseptual, validasi grand design model melalui validasi ahli, dan merevisi grand design model berdasarkan hasil validasi model. Pada langkah ketiga, dilakukan uji coba efetivitas model yang telah dikembangkan menggunakan metode eksperimen.

Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa, pertama tingkat integrasi TIK dalam pembelajaran yang diterapkan oleh guru masuk dalam kategori tinggi (73,25%). Materi pelatihan yang dibutuhkan guru meliputi: a) pengolah angka, b) pembuatan media pesentasi, c) penggunaan internet, d) pengolah kata, dan e) materi TIK spesifik lainnya yang berhubungan langsung dengan mata pelajaran. Kedua, kerangka dasar model fasilitasi TIK dikembangkan berdasarkan tiga elemen utama yaitu: (a) pengelola program, (b) kegiatan pelatihan, dan (c) peserta (guru). Ketiga, perangkat model fasilitasi TIK berbasis permintaan terdiri dari buku panduan penyelenggaraan model fasilitasi TIK dan modul pelatihan. Buku panduan memperoleh skor validasi ahli sebesar 93,1% dengan kriteria “Sangat Tinggi”, yang berarti buku panduan dapat digunakan. Sedangkan modul pelatihan memperoleh skor uji coba lapangan sebesar 86,6% dengan kriteria “Sangat Tinggi”, yang berarti modul dapat digunakan. Keempat, keefektifan penerapan model fasilitasi TIK berbasis permintaan berdasarkan hasil evaluasi uji coba kelompok kecil dan uji coba lapangan, mempunyai skor sebesar 85,9% dengan kategori “Sangat Tinggi”. Artinya model yang telah dikembangkan dapat diimplementasikan secara baik oleh pengelola program, sesuai dengan standar mutu penerapan model dan kondisi sekolah masing-masing (given condition). Hal ini didukung pada hasil uji coba lapangan berdasarkan perhitungan menggunakan uji-t dari nilai pretest dan posttest peserta pelatihan diperoleh nilai taraf Sig. (2-tailed) = 0,000 < 0,05, yang berarti hasil belajar peserta sebelum dan setelah mengikuti pelatihan berbeda secara signifikan.


ABSTRACT


Hidayat, Wahyu Nur. 2016.  Development of On Demand Based ICT Facilitation Model To Improve ICT Competence of Vocational School Teachers. Thesis. Vocational Education, State University of Malang, Advisors:(I) Dr. Muladi, S.T., M.T., (II) Dr. M. Alfian Mizar, M.P.


Keywords : ICT Facilitation Model, Training, Competency, Vocational Teachers

Teachers as the spearhead of education, are required to have the ability in the field of ICT. This demand becomes the basic concept of Curriculum 2013, which mandates the integration of ICT in learning. To support this concept, issued Permendikbud No. 45 of 2015, which mandates the ICT and KKPI teachers average to organize facilitation fellow teachers. Observations from Malang public vocational high school, found major problems, namely: a) ICT training for teachers in school on carried out 2 times a year; b) ICT training materials organized for teachers is not based on the needs of teachers; c) there is no model of ICT guidance to fellow teachers; and d) ICT teachers / KKPI experiencing difficulties in organizing roles and tasks to develop programs and organize facilitation of ICT in schools.

This study aims to uncover and describe the profile of the integration of ICT in learning organized vocational teachers, identify the need for training materials, developed a model of facilitation of ICT through training and testing models that have been developed. The design of the study is a Research and Development (R & D). Broadly speaking, there are three steps to do, which is carrying out initial studies to determine the characteristics of teachers related to the integration of ICT, to develop a conceptual model of a grand design facilitation of ICT through training to improve the competence of vocational teachers, and to test the effectiveness of the model.

The steps to carry out a pilot study, which designed the study, developed the research instruments, collect data, process and interpret the data, and find the characteristics of teachers on the integration of ICT in learning. This initial research is a survey research conducted at Malang public vocational high school in 2015. The research sample was taken of 166 respondents, classified by subject cluster, with details 53 adaptive teachers, 38 normative teachers, and 75 productive teachers. The sampling technique using proportionate stratified random sampling. The second step is to develop a conceptual model of the grand design facilitation of ICT through training. The development model is also done through several steps, which is preparing a conceptual model of the grand design, validation grand design models through validation expert and revise the grand design models based on the results of model validation. In the third step, conducted trials efetivitas models that have been developed using the experimental method.

The results of this study show that, the first level of integration of ICT in learning applied by teachers in the high category (73.25%). Teacher training materials required include: a) processing numbers, b) pesentasi media creation, c) use of the internet, d) word processing, and e) any other specific ICT materials that relate directly to the subject. Second, the basic framework of ICT facilitation model was developed based on three main elements, namely: (a) the manager of the program, (b) training activities, and (c) the participant (teacher). Thirdly, the facilitation model of ICT-based query consisting of guide books facilitation model of ICT implementation and training modules. Guidebooks obtain expert validation score of 93.1% with the criteria of "Very High", which means it can be used guide books. While training modules field trial obtained a score of 86.6% with the criteria of "Very High", which means the module can be used. Fourth, the effectiveness of the application of ICT-based facilitation model based on the evaluation request small group trial and field trials, has a score of 85.9% to the category of "Very High". That is the model that has been developed can be implemented either by the program manager, in accordance with the quality standards the application of the model and condition of each school (given condition). It is supported on the results of field trials based on calculations using t-test of the value pretest and posttest training participants obtained Sig. (2-tailed) = 0.000 < 0.05, which means learning outcomes before and after training significantly different.