DISERTASI dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM, 2016

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

RepresentasiKarakter Orang Banjar dalam Narasi Seni Pertunjukan Lamut

SABHAN

Abstrak


ABSTRAK

 

Sabhan. 2016. Representasi Karakter Orang Banjar dalam Narasi Seni Pertunjukan Lamut. Disertasi. Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Indonesia, Pascasarjana, Universitas Negeri Malang. Pembimbing: (I) Prof. Dr. Djoko Saryono, M.Pd.; (II) Dr. Imam Agus Basuki, M.Pd.; (III) Dr. H. Zulkifli, M.Pd.

 

Kata kunci: representasi, karakter orang Banjar, SeniPertunjukanLamut

Penduduk asli Kalimantan Selatanyang biasa disebut orang Banjar memiliki banyak seni pertunjukan (SP), di antaranya ialah SP Lamut.SP Lamutyang berisi kisah kerajaan zaman bahari pada awalnya hanya dilisankan,yang kemudianditranskripsike dalam naskah sembilan narasi. Narasi SP Lamut lebih banyak menggunakan bahasa Banjar dan berisi banyak tokoh dengan berbagai karakter.

Narasi SP Lamut yang dijadikansumber data berjudul besar “Kerajaan Palinggam” terdiri atas sembilan judul kecil, yaitu: (1) Raja Awang Salenong, (2) Raja Bungsu, (3) Raden Kasan Mandi, (4) Junjung Masari Bunuh Diri, (5) Bujang Maluwala ke Negeri Cina, (6) Bujang Busur, (7) Bujang Jaya, (8) Bang Bang Teja Aria, dan (9) Bang Bang Indra Kelana.Kesembilanjudulnarasiinimerupakanpopulasijudulnarasi SP Lamut, tidakadalagiselainitu.

Penelitian iniberfokus padatigakarakter orang Banjar (KOB), yakni: (1)KOByang berkaitan denganhubungan manusia dan Tuhan; (2) KOB yangbaikberkaitan denganhubungan sesama manusia; dan(3)KOB berkaitan denganhubunganmanusia dan diri sendiri.

Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif dengan jenis penelitian hermeneutika. Data penelitian berupa kata, kalimat, dan paragraf yang terdapat dalam sumber data, yakni narasi SP Lamut.Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan teknik studi dokumentasi, yakni dengan pembacaan berulang kali, pengidentifikasian, pengklasifikasian, pengodean, dan pengatagorian. Data yang terkumpul dianalisis dengan metode hermeneutika Ricoeur, yakni secara interaktif dengan adaptasi.

Dari hasil analisis, diperoleh temuanbahwasecaraumumdapat disimpulkan bahwa KOB dalamnarasi SP Lamutmasihdipengaruhiajaran Hindu, meskipunada yang beragama Islam. Hal itutampakpadakebiasaanmerekaseperti (1) berdukun, (2) bertapa, (3) bernazarketempat yang dianggapkeramat, dan (4) memberisesajen.

Simpulanterhadap KOB yang berkaitandengantigafokuspenelitiansebagaiberikut.Pertama,KOB yang berkaitan denganhubungan manusia dan Tuhan ada dua macam, yaitu (1) monoteisme, terdiriatas: memulai perkataandengansalam, kegiatan dengan basmalah dan selawat, bersyukurkepada Allah, dan  mendoakankeselamatan; (2) politeisme, yang terdiriatas: bersyukurpadadewa, memerlukanTuhan/dewa, berdukun, percayapadadewa, bertapamencarikesaktian, sukabermantra, danpercayamimpi.Kedua, KOB yang berkaitan dengan hubungan sesama manusiaadaduamacam, yaitu  (1) kemanusiaan,terdiriatas: harapanbagianak, menyusui anak dengan ASI, mengajarkan/menuntut ilmu, adikdanbijaksana, merasakasihan, pantangan membunuh orang tua, danperlakuan terhadap jenazah;(2) sosial, terdiriatas: berkasih saying, berbalaspantun, poligami, menidurkan anak dengan nyanyian, berlomba meminang wanita cantik, membalas jasa, menyenangkan mengumpulkan orang dengan gong, juru sabar, suka berkesenian, kerja sama, menunggu masa idah, hormatkepada orang tua, minta maaf/ampun di akhirperkataan, penggunaanguna-guna, kelahi, bertunangan, jurudamai.Ketiga, KOB yang berkaitan denganhubunganmanusiadan diri sendiriadaduamacam, yakni (1) karakterbaik, terdiridari: rendah hati, pemberani,  penyayang, sakti, suka berambut panjang, pandaimenafsirkanmimpi, sedih/sakit hati, sopan-santun, kaya, sukabanyaksenjata, dansukaberburu; (2) karakterjelek, terdiridari: kasar, pemarah, kejam, kurang ajar, mata keranjang, pendendam, daningkar janji.

Setelahdiketahuihasilpenelitianini, yakni KOB yang berkaitandenganhubunganmanusiadanTuhan, hubungansesamamanusia, danhubungandengandirisendiri, penulismenyampaikan saran (1) Bagi guru/dosen, hasilpenelitianinidapatdijadikanbagiandarimateripembelajarantentangkarakter di sekolah/perguruantinggi; (2) Bagipelakuseni, hasilpenelitianinidapatdijadikancontohuntukmenelitisenitradisiBanjar yang lainnya agar terusberkembang; dan (3) BagiPemdaKalsel, hendaknyaturutmemperhatikan, membina, danberperan-sertapengembanganberbagaisenidaerah, misalnyadenganmengadakankursus/pelatihansenilamut, madihin, danmamanda.

 

ABSTRACT

 

Sabhan. 2016. Representation of Banjarese Characters in the Narration of Lamut Performing Art. Dissertation. Graduate Program in Indonesian Language Education Department, Universitas Negeri Malang. Advisors (I) Prof. Dr. DjokoSaryono, M.Pd.; (II) Dr. Imam AgusBasuki, M.Pd.; (III) Dr. Zulkifli, M.Pd.

 

Keywords: representation, Banjarese characters, Lamut Performing Art

Native people of South Kalimantan commonly called Banjarese have many performing arts, one of which  is Lamut. Lamut performing art which contains the story of the kingdom in the past time was at first only orally presented, however at the present time researchers have recorded and written in the nine narrative texts. Narration of Lamut performing art (PA) frequently uses Banjarese language and contains many story actors with different characters.

Narration of Lamut PA with the main title  "Kingdom of Palinggam" consists of nine sub-titles, namely: (1) King AwangSalenong, (2) King Bungsu, (3) RadenKasanMandi, (4) JunjungMasari Suicides, (5) BujangMaluwala to the Chinese State, (6) BujangBusur, (7) Bujang Jaya, (8) Bang BangTeja Aria, and (9) Bang BangIndraKelana. The nine titles of the narratives above are the population of the titles of Lamut Performing Art; there are no other titles.

This study was undertaken with the focuses on three kinds of Banjarese characters, namely: (1) the Banjarese character relating between man and God; (2) the Banjarese character relating among men; (3) the Banjarese character relating between man and himself.

This study uses a qualitative approach supported by the type of hermeneutics research. The research data are in the form of words, sentences, and paragraphs available the data source, namely: narration of Lamut PA. Data collected by documentation study technique, ie, by reading the narration repeatedly, identifying, classifying, coding, and categorizing. Data are analyzed using hermeneutics method of Ricoeur, namely: interactive way with adaptation.

From the analysis, the findings show that Banjarese characters in Lamut Performing Art has still been  influenced by the teachings of Hindu, although some are Muslems. These can be seen form  their habits such as (1) going to shaman, (2) imprisoning, (3) making a vow to the sacred places, and (4) giving offerings.

The conclusions of the Banjarese relating to the three focuses of research focus. First, Banjarese characters  relating to the relationship between humans and God are in two kinds, namely (1) monotheism, consisting of: starting with the words of greeting, activities with basmalah and invocation, thanking God, and pray for salvation; (2) polytheism, comprising: thanking god, needing God/god, going to shaman, believing in god, imprisoning for for supernatural power, liking magic verses, and believing the dream. Second, Banjarese characters relating to human relationships are in  two kinds, namely (1) of humanity, consisting of: expecting for children, breast feeding with breast milk, teaching/learning, being fair and thoughtful, being compassionated, being prohibitted to kill the parents, and the treatment the dead bodies; (2) social activities, consisting of: loving each other, unrequiting rhymes, polygamy, putting the kids with a song, competing to woo a beautiful woman, recompensing, pleasing and gathering people with a gong, being patient, loving arts, cooperating each other, waiting for the waiting time, being respectful to parents, apologizing  at the end of words, using witchery, fighting, engaging, peacemaker. Third, Banjarese characters relating to human relations and themselves are in  two kinds, namely (1) good charactesr, consisting of: being humble, courageous, compassionate, powerful, liking a long-haired, being good at interpreting dreams, being sad/hurted, courtesy , rich, loving a lot of weapons, and hunting; (2) bad characters, consisting of: being coarse, angry, cruel, impudent, womanizer, vindictive, and breaking promises.

After the results of this study have been known, that Banjarese characters relating  to the relationship between humans and God, human relations, and the relationship with oneself, the researcher makes suggestions (1) For the teacher/lecturer, the results of this study can be used as a part of the learning materials about the characters in school/university; (2) For the artists, the results of this study can serve as an example to study the other Banjarese traditional arts in order to  continuallydevelop and (3) The local government of South Kalimantan should pay attention, develop and take a part in developing the local arts, for examples by making courses/training on lamut art, madihin, and mamanda.