DISERTASI dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM, 2016

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

Manajemen Program Parenting di SDIT Insan Permata dan SD Puri Asah Dasar Avesiena Kota Malang

TRI WAHYUNI

Abstrak


ABSTRAK

 

Wahyuni, Tri. 2016. Manajemen Program Parenting di Sekolah Dasar (Studi Multi Situs di SDIT Insan Permata dan SD Puri Asah Dasar Avesiena Malang). Tesis. Jurusan Manajemen Pendidikan, Program Pascasarjana Universitas Negeri Malang. Pembimbing: (I) Prof. Dr. H. Muhammad Huda A.Y., M.Pd., (II) Dr. H. Imron Arifin, M.Pd.

 

Kata Kunci: manajemen, program parenting, keterlibatan orang tua, sekolah dasar

Keterlibatan orang tua dalam pendidikan anaknya di sekolah adalah hal yang dibutuhkan untuk mendukung dan mendorong pembelajaran dan perkembangan anak. Program parenting merupakan langkah yang dilakukan sekolah untuk melibatkan orang tua dalam pendidikan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah: (1) mengetahui proses perencanaan program parenting di SDIT Insan Permata dan SD Puri Asah Dasar Avesiena, (2) mengetahui proses pengorganisasian program parenting di SDIT Insan Permata dan SD Puri Asaah Dasar Avesiena, (3) mengetahui proses penggerakan program parenting di SDIT Insan Permata dan SD Puri Asaah Dasar Avesiena, (4) mengetahui proses evaluasi program parenting di SDIT Insan Permata dan SD Puri Asah Dasar Avesiena, (5) mengetahui faktor pendukung program parenting di SDIT Insan Permata dan SD Puri Asah Dasar Avesiena dan upaya pengoptimalannya, dan (6) mengetahui faktor penghambat program parenting di SDIT Insan Permata dan SD Puri Asah Dasar Avesiena dan upaya mengatasinya.

Penelitian dilakukan dengan rancangan multi situs dalam pendekatan kualitatif. Proses pengambilan data dilakukan melalui wawancara, observasi, dan studi dokumen. Analisis data dilakukan dengan cara induksi analitis. Pengecekan keabsahan data dilakukan melalui triangulasi sumber, triangulasi teknik, triangulasi waktu, pengecekan anggota, diskusi teman sejawat dan kecukupan bahan referensi.

Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa: (1) Perencanaan program parenting  ditentukan melalui tiga mekanisme, yaitu top down, bottom up dan parent paricipation. Beberapa hal yang ditentukan dalam perencanaan yaitu (a) identitas program, (b) langkah implementasi program, dan (c) langkah mengevaluasi program. Jenis program parenting yang dilaksankan di sekolah meliputi tiga tipe, yaitu: (a) pengoptimalan tanggung jawab dasar orang tua, (b) komunikasi, dan (c) sukarelawan. (2) Pengorganisasian program parenting dilakukan dengan beberapa hal, yaitu: (a) Struktur sekolah sebagai sarana pengorganisasian guru, (b) POS sebagai sarana pengorganisasian dan pemberdayaan ortu, (c) panitia sebagai struktur organisasi pelaksana (d) memberdayakan SDM guru, orang tua dan profesi lain yang mendukung, (e) dalam pengorganisasian guru dan karyawan dalam strukturnya perlu memperhatikan ukuran sekolah, (f) memberdayakan guru sebagai penanggung jawab utama, inisiator, penggerak, dan panitia pelaksana, (g)  memberdayakan orang tua sebagai inisiator, penggerak, panitia pelaksana, pendukung keuangan dan sarana prasarana, dan sasaran utama program parenting, (h) Profesi lain baik yang dimiliki sekolah ataupun tidak diberdayakan sebagai mitra dalam pengelolaan program parenting, (i)  sumber dana utama dari biaya pendidikan didukung oleh kas paguyubn dan sumbangan sukarela orang tua, (j) sarana prasarana  utama adalah sarana prasarana sekolah dibantu sarana prasarana dari orang tua, (k) sarana komunikasi koordinasi : group whatsapps, surat, pertemuan.(3) Penggerakan Program Parenting dilakukan dengan: (a) Penggerakan guru dilakukan dengan cara pembangunan komitmen, pengorientasian guru, edukasi, pemotivasian, dan diberi keleluasaan dan wewenang, (b) penggerakan orang tua dilakukan dengan cara: pembangunan komitmen melalui shared vision dan penandatanganan MOU, edukasi, pemotivasian, pengontrolan dan juga pengevaluasian secara rutin,  home visit, parent’s home work, dan pemberian punishment., (4) Evaluasi program parenting dilakukan dengan tiga mekanisme tergantung dari jenisnya, yaitu (a) untuk jenis even, evaluasi dilakukan panitia setelah acara usai dan diwujudkan dalam sebuah laporan pertanggungjawaban, (b) untuk yang bersifat personal dan bukan program harian, evaluasi dilakukan setelah kegiatan selesai dan diwujudkan dalam laporan pertanggungjawaban dan catatan, dan (c) untuk yang bersifat harian, evaluasi dilakukan harian dan diwujudkan dalam catatan. Beberapa hal yang dibahas dalam evaluasi, yaitu : (a) realisasi kegiatan, (b) penggunaan dana, (c) tingkat kehadiran dan keaktifan orang tua, (d) ketercapaian target, (e) kendala, (f) kelebihan dan kekurangan, (g) kontribusi orang tua, (h) perubahan sikap orang tua, beserta (i) saran dan rekomendasi; (5) Faktor pendukung pengelolaan program parenting meliputi kekuatan dan peluang sekolah. Kekuatan, yaitu: (a)  shared vision di awal tahun ajaran, (b) MOU di tiap awal tahun ajaran, (c) guru yang care dan dekat dengan siswa, (d) Edukasi guru dan orang tua, (e) Talenta dan psikiater, (f) Quality Assurance sekolah, (g) korjen dan kewenangannya, (h) komunikasi antara guru dan orang tua yang bisa berlangsung kapan saja, (i) punishment, dan (j) Small class. Peluang sekolah yaitu: (a) Keberadaan paguyuban orang tua murid, dan (h) Sebagian besar  orang tua murid berpendidikan tinggi. Upaya pengoptimalan faktor-faktor pendukung dalam pengelolaan program parenting dilakukan dalam rangka membuat faktor-faktor yang ada memberikan dukungan dengan optimal, dan dengan mengembangkan bentuk dukungan atau kemanfaatan faktor dari yang telah ada, (6) Faktor penghambat dari pengelolaan program parenting, meliputi kelemahan dan tantangan sekolah. Kelemahan berupa ketegasan dari pihak sekolah yang masih kurang. Tantangan sekolah berupa life context dari orang tua, meliputi: (a) orang tua yang tidak satu pemikiran dengan sekolah, (b) ketidakhadiran orang tua saat shared vision, (c) kesibukan orang tua murid, (d) orang tua yang pasif dan kurang memprioritaskan, dan (e) adanya tunggakan biaya pendidikan. Upaya mengatasi hambatan dilakukan dengan memperbaiki sistem sekolah dan mengutamakan pendekatan persuasif ke orang tua, dengan tetap memperhitungkan progresivitas orang tua, dan pemberian konsekuensi ke orang tua.

Beberapa saran dari peneliti kepada pengelola program parenting, yaitu: (1) merapihkan pedoman pelaksanaan program parenting, (2)meningkatkan kefahaman yang sama pada guru  dan orang tua mengenai konsep parenting yang diterapkan di sekolah, (3) mempertahankan komposisi perbandingan guru dan siswa pada tiap kelas pada kisaran maksimal 1:15, (4) meningkatkan program parenting yang bersifat memerankan orang tua dalam pengambilan keputusan menyangkut program sekolah dan keuangan sekolah, (5) melakukan evaluasi program parenting sampai pada tingkat kontribusi dari terselenggaranya program terhadap perkembangan dan pembelajaran siswa.

 

ABSTRACT

 

Wahyuni, Tri. 2016. Parenting Program Management at Elementary School (Multi-Site Study at  SDIT Insan Permata and SD Puri Asah Dasar Avesiena Malang). Thesis. Education Management Department, Graduate Program of State University of Malang.Supervisors: (I) Prof. Dr. H. Muhammad Huda A.Y., M.Pd., (II) Dr. H. Imron Arifin, M.Pd.

 

Keywords: management, parenting program, parent involvement, elementary school

The involvement of parents in their child’s education at school is required to support and encourage the learning and development of children. Parenting program is a measure undertaken by school to involve parents in education. The purposes of this research are: (1) to find out the planning process of parenting program at SDIT InsanPermata and SD Puri Asah Dasar Avesiena, (2) to find out organizing process of parenting program at SDIT Insan Permata and SD Puri Asah Dasar Avesiena, (3) to find out actuating process of parenting program at SDIT Insan Permata Malang and SD Puri Asah Dasar Avesiena, (4) to find out evaluation process of parenting program at SDIT Insan Permata and SD Puri Asah Dasar Avesiena, (5) to find out the supporting factor of parenting program at SDIT Insan Permata and SD Puri Asah Dasar Avesiena and its optimization efforts, and (6) to find out the inhibiting factors of parenting program at SDIT Insan Permata and SD Puri Asah Dasar Avesiena and the efforts to overcome it.

This research was conducted with a qualitative approach in a multi-site design. Data collection was carried out through interviews, observations, and documents study. Data analysis was carried out by analytical induction method.  Data validity was carried out through source triangulation, technique triangulation, time triangulation, member checking, peer discussion and adequacy of reference materials.

The results indicated that: (1) Planning of parenting program was determined through three mechanisms, namely top down, bottom up and parent paricipation. There were several things determined in the planning, they were (a) program identity,(b) steps to the implementation of the program, and (c) steps to evaluate the program. The type of parenting program conducted at the school included three types, namely: (a)the basic responsibilities of parents, (b) communication, and (c) volunteers. (2) The organizing of parenting program was carried out with a few things, namely: (a) The structure of the school as a means of organizing teacher, (b) POS as a means of organizing and empowering parents, (c) the committee as the structure of the implementing organization (d) empower human resources of teacher, parents and other professionals who support, (e) in the organizing teacher and staffs, the structure needed to consider the size of the school, so that the implementation process can run more effective and efficient, (f) empower teachers as in charge principal, initiator, activator, and the executive committee,(g) empower parents as initiator, activator, the executive committee, financial backers and infrastructure, and the main target of parenting program, (h) other profession, either owned by school or not empowered as partners in the management of parenting program,(i) the main financial source of education costs were supported association cash and voluntary contributions of parents,(j) the main infrastructure was the school infrastructure aided by infrastructure of parents,(k) the means of communication for coordination: whatsapps group, letters, meetings. (3) the mobilization of parenting program was carried out by: (a) the mobilization of teacher was carried out by building commitment, teacher orientating, education, motivating, and given the freedom and authority,(b) the mobilization of parents was carried out by: building commitment through shared vision and the signing of MoU, education, motivating, controlling and also evaluating regularly, home visit, parent’s home work, and giving punishment, (4) the evaluation of parenting program was carried out by three mechanisms depending on the type, namely (a) for the type of even, the evaluation was carried out by the committee after the event and realized in an accountability report,(b) for personal and not a daily program, evaluation was carried out after the event and realized in an accountability report and records, and (c) for daily evaluation, evaluation was carried out daily and realized in a record. Some of the issues discussed at the evaluation were: (a) the activity realization,(b) the use of funds,(c) the level of attendance and activeness of parents,(d) achievement of the target,(e) constraints,(f) the advantages and disadvantages,(g) parents contribution,(h) changes in the attitude of parents, and (i) suggestions and recommendations;(5) the factors supporting the management of parenting program included the strength and the opportunities of the school. The strengths were: (a) shared vision in the beginning of school year,(b) MoU at the beginning of each school year,(c) teacher who care and close to the students, (d) education of teachers and parents,(e) talents and psychiatrists,(f) Quality Assurance of the school,(g) korjen and its authorities,(h) communication between teachers and parents that could take place any time,(i) punishment, and (j) Small class. The school opportunities were: (a) the existence of parent-student association, and (b) most of the parents were highly educated. The optimization efforts of supporting factors in the management of parenting program was carried out in order to make the existing factors providing support to the optimum, and by developing a form of support or benefit from the existing factors, (6) the inhibiting factors of the management of parenting program included the weaknesses and challenge of the school. The weaknesses were in the form of the lack of firmness of the school. The school challenges were in the form of life context from parents, including: (a) parents who have different opinion with the school, (b) the absence of parents in time of shared vision,(c) the busyness of parents, (d) the parents were passive and less prioritize, and (e) any arrears of tuition fees. The efforts to overcome the obstacles were carried out by improving the school system and prioritizing persuasive approach to parents, by also considering the progression of the parents, and giving consequences to parents.

Some suggestions from the researcher to the manager of parenting program are: (1) to clean up the implementation guidelines of parenting program,(2) to increase the same understanding on teachers and parents about the parenting concept applied at school,(3) to maintain a ratio of teachers and students each class at a maximum range of 1: 15 (4) to improve parenting program that are playing the parents in decision making related to school programs and school finance,(5) to evaluate parenting program up to the level of contribution of the program implementation on the development and learning of the students.