DISERTASI dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM, 2016

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

Tindak Tutur Ekspresif Guru terhadap Siswa Autis dalam Interaksi Pembelajaran di Kelas

Eri Praptika

Abstrak


ABSTRAK

 

Praptika, Eri. 2015. Tindak Tutur Ekspresif Guru terhadap Siswa Autis dalam Interaksi Pembelajaran di Kelas. Tesis. Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa Indonesia, Program Pascasarjana Universitas Negeri Malang. Pembimbing: (I) Prof. Dr. H. Abd. Syukur Ibrahim., (II) Prof. Dr. Anang Santoso, M.Pd.

 

Keywords: tindak tutur ekspresif guru, interaksi pembelajaran, siswa autis.

 

Interaksi pembelajaran di kelas dibentuk oleh berbagai wujud tindak tutur. Salah satu tindak tutur yang berperan penting adalah tindak tutur ekspresif. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan untuk mengetahuitindak tutur ekspresif guru terhadap siswa autis dalam interaksi pembelajaran di kelas. Tujuan penelitian ini secara rinci adalah (1) mendeskripsikan fungsi tindak tutur ekspresif guru terhadap siswa autis dalam interaksi pembelajaran di kelas; (2) mendeskripsikan strategi tindak tutur ekspresif guru terhadap siswa autis dalam interaksi pembelajaran di kelas; dan (3) mengetahui keefektifan tindak tutur ekspresif guru terhadap siswa autis dalam interaksi pembelajaran di kelas.

Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatifserta termasuk dalam jenis penelitian pragmatik. Peneliti berusaha mendeskripsikan tujuan penelitian yang ingin dicapai. Pengambilan data dilakukan secara mendalam melalui observasi (perekaman dan pencatatan lapangan) dan wawancara oleh peneliti sebagai instrumen kunci. Data hasil penelitian dicek keabsahannya dengan triangulasi dan ketekunan serta ketelitian dalam pengamatan. Analisis data dilakukan melalui beberapa tahap, yaitu transkripsi, reduksi data, kodifikasi dan identifikasi data, tabulasi data, interpretasi data, verifikasi temuan penelitian, dan penyimpulan hasil penelitian.

Secara teoretis, hasil penelitian ini dapat bermanfaat dalam melengkapi teori tindak tutur dan pragmatik. Secara praktis, hasil penelitian ini bermanfaat bagi guru dan terapis dalam menangani siswa autis.

Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa guru menggunakan tindak tutur ekspresif baik verbal maupun nonverbal yang bersifat umum. Guru memanfaatkan fungsi-fungsi tindak tutur ekspresif yakni fungsi tindak verbal (fungsi menyalahkan, berterima kasih, memuji, menegur, mengeluh, dan memotivasi) dan fungsi tindak nonverbal (fungsi repetisi, substitusi, dan aksentuasi). Untuk menstimulasi respon siswa autis, guru menggunakan strategi tindak verbal (strategi langsung dan strategi tidak langsung) dan strategi tindak nonverbal (strategi sentuhan fisik). Secara umum, fungsi dan strategi tindak tutur ekspresif guru memiliki keefektifan yang berbeda-beda. Kesesuaian wujud verbal tuturan dengan fungsi yang diinferensikan memiliki kadar keefektifan yang tinggi dalam menyampaikan maksud (makna ilokusi) dari tindak tutur ekspresif guru. Kejelasan tuturan dapat membantu siswa autis dalam memahami pesan yang ingin disampaikan guru dalam interaksi pembelajaran di kelas. Simpulan hasil penelitian adalah guru menggunakan tindak tutur ekspresif berdasarkan gangguan-gangguan yang dimiliki siswa autis.

 

ABSTRACT

 

Praptika, Eri. 2015. Teachers’ Expressive Speech Acts toward Students with Autism in the Teaching Interaction in the Classroom. Thesis. Indonesian Education Department, Postgraduate, State University of Malang. Advisors: (I) Prof Dr. H. Abd. Syukur Ibrahim., (II) Prof. Dr. Anang Santoso, M.Pd.

 

Keywords: teachers expressive speech acts, teaching interaction, students         with       autism.

 

Teaching interaction in the classroom shaped by various forms of speech acts. One of speech acts that play an important role is expressive speech acts. This research was conducted to know teachers’ expressive speech acts toward students with autism of the teaching interaction in the classroom. The detailed purpose of this study are (1) to describe the function of teachers’ ekspressive speech acts toward students with autism of the teaching interaction in the classroom; (2) to describe the strategy of teachers’ ekspressive speech acts toward students with autism of the teaching interaction in the classroom; and (3) to know the effectiveness of teachers’ ekspressive speech acts toward students with autism of the teaching interaction in the classroom.

This study used descriptive qualitative design including the type of pragmatic research. The researcher attempted to describe the research objectives that has to be achieved. The data were collected in depth through observation (recording and field recording) and interviews by the researcher as the key instrument. The data validity were checked by using triangulation and accuracy in the observation. Data analysis was carried out in several stages, namely transcription, data reduction, codification and identification of the data, tabulation of data, interpretation of data, verification of research findings, and conclusions of  the research results.

Theoretically, the results of this study can be used as a useful theory in completing speech act and pragmatics. On the other hands in practical terms, the results of this study can be used as a teaching strategy for teachers and therapists in facing students with autism.

The results showed that the teacher used speech acts both verbal and nonverbal expressive of a general nature. Teacher utilized the functions of expressive speech acts that follow verbal function (function blame, thank, praise, reprimand, complaining, and motivating) and follow nonverbal functions (functions of repetition, substitution, and accentuation). To stimulate students' autism responses, teacher used strategies follow verbal (direct strategy and indirect strategy) and strategy of nonverbal acts (strategy of physical touch). Generally, the function and the strategy of the teacher’s expresive action have different effectivities. The suitability form of verbal utterances with functions that is interred high levels of effectiveness in conveying the intent (meaning illocutionary) of teachers’ expressive speech acts. The clarity of speech can help students with autism in understanding the message of the teacher of the teaching interaction in the classroom. The conclusion of the study is the teacher used expressive speech acts according to the disturbances of the students with autism.