DISERTASI dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM, 2016

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

Teacher’s and Students’ Questioning and Teacher’s Feedback in EFL Classroom

Widia Rizah Hidayanti




Hidayanti, Widia Rizah. 2015. Teacher’s and Students’ Questioning and Teacher’s Feedback in EFL Classroom. Thesis. English Language Teaching, Graduate Program, State University of Malang. Advisors: (I) Dr. Mirjam Anugerahwati M.A., (II) Dr. Arwijati Wahjudi Murdibjono, Dip. TESL, M.Pd.


Keywords: teacher questions, students questions, feedback, EFL classroom


This study is aimed to explore the information concerning with the teacher’s instruction by focusing on teacher’s and students’ questions, and feedback employed by the teacher in EFL classroom, particularly in senior high school. In specific, this study was intended to investigate 1) the types of questions posed by the teacher in EFL classroom, 2) the types of questions posed by the students in EFL classroom, and 3) the feedbacks employed by the teacher in EFL classroom

To answer those research problems, a descriptive case study under qualitative approach was conducted. The subjects of this study were a non-native English teacher and second graders in all classes the observed teacher taught at SMAN 1 Sumenep. The data were in the form of teacher’s and students’ oral questions and teacher’s feedbacks obtained through non-participant classroom observation. Besides, the supporting data such as subjects’ opinion and understanding were collected through semi-structured interview.

The study revealed that the total number of questions posed by the teacher in fourteen sessions of classroom observation were 366 questions. The majority of questions asked were referential or divergent questions with 268 questions or 73% out of the total number of questions asked in all the classes. The types of referential questions were closed (41%) and open referential questions (32%). On the contrary, the teacher was rarely asked display or convergent questions. It accounted for only 98 questions or 27% of the total questions asked by the

teacher. The types of question asked were in the form of closed and open display questions with the total number 20% and 7%. Furthermore, it was revealed that the use of referential questions produced more classroom interaction and promoted students’ higher-level thinking than display questions did.

Regarding to the students’ questions, the students under the observation asked very few questions in the class. It was only 45 questions or about 11% if be compared with the teacher’s questions which dominate as 89 % of the class times. The students generated only 7% out of the total number of students’ questions to the teacher, 75% to their classmates, and 18% to whole members of the class. The students’ questions were categorized into closed (low level) and open (high level) questions with the total number of 45% and 55%. It shows that the students raised the larger number of high level cognitive question of the total number of questions asked.

Concerning teacher’s feedback, it was revealed that the teacher under the study spontaneously employed positive feedback when students answered as expected by the teacher, and provided negative feedbacks to response to students’ incorrect answers. She utilized about 75% positive feedbacks while 25% for

negative feedbacks. The teacher applied some strategies in providing negative feedback, such as: giving direction, criticizing students’ response, redirecting to other students, and correcting without rejection. Meanwhile, when giving positive feedback, the teacher usually employed strategies, such as: elaborating students’ ideas, repeating students’ response, and giving encouraging words or praises.

Based on the findings of the study, some suggestions proposed for EFL teachers and future researchers. For EFL teachers, it was expected to improve their knowledge about the types and the role of questions in the class communication and interaction that will stimulate students’ higher order thinking

skill and guide them to further discussion and a deeper understanding. In addition, it was important for EFL teachers to encourage the students to generate their own questions by providing appropriate teaching strategies and classroom activities. It was also suggested that the EFL teachers seek to provide the knowledge of appropriate feedback in handling students’ responses. For further researcher, it

was suggested to conduct the research which investigates the correlation of the teacher’s and students’ questioning behavior and teacher’s feedback to the students’ output of the target language or achievement. Moreover, it will be interesting for further researchers to carry out the study by involving more teachers with different students’ proficiency.