DISERTASI dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM, 2016

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

Students' Awareness of Grammatical Errors in Writing Analyzed Through Peer Correction

Yuni Amelia




Amelia, Yuni. 2015. Students Grammatical Errors Awareness in Writing Analyzed through Peer Correction. Thesis. Graduate Program in English Language Education, State University of Malang. Advisors: (I) Dr. Enny Irawati, M.Pd., (II) Prof. A. Effendi Kadarisman, MA. Ph.D


Keywords: grammar, errors, awareness, writing, peer correction


Considering the importance of grammar in writing, it is necessary to investigate students' awareness in identifying not only grammatical but also ungrammatical sentences. Learners' ungrammatical sentences or called errors are indicators of learning stages. This study is rooted in error analysis. It aims to investigate students' awareness of grammatical errors in essays. Specifically, the purposes of this study are investigating grammatical errors that can be identified by the students, grammatical errors that cannot be identified by the students, and the reason why the students are not able to identify grammatical errors in their friend's essay.

The design of the study is descriptive qualitative. The instruments used were writing prompt and interview guide. The research subjects were selected using a purposive sampling technique. There were 30 fourth-semester students of English Department at Tadulako University who participated in this study. Data were collected by assigning each student to write an essay based on the writing prompt and by interviewing the students. After finishing the process of writing, students' essays were exchanged. The students then acted as correctors who were asked to identify grammatical errors; each student corrected one essay. It was done through peer correction technique.

The students' results of corrections were analyzed in order to find out the grammatical errors that they could identify. Then, all essays were analyzed to discover the grammatical errors that missed from students' corrections. The essays were analyzed using the technique adapted from error analysis by Ellis (1994). Then, the grammatical errors were classified using surface taxonomy (Dulay, Burt & Krashen, 1982). Meanwhile, the interview was conducted to probe information about the students' reasons for not being able to identify grammatical errors in their friend's essay.

The findings showed that most of the students have awareness of grammatical errors in their friend's essay. They could identify many grammatical errors through peer correction process. It was proven by the findings that presented 178 numbers of grammatical errors that could be identified by the students. Unfortunately, not all errors could be identified by the students. There were 242 numbers of grammatical errors that could not be identified by the students in this study. The percentages of unidentified grammatical errors were larger than identified ones. By comparison, 42.4 % grammatical errors could be identified by the students while 57.6 % grammatical errors could not be identified by the students.

Based on the findings, some conclusions were derived. First, most of the students were able to identify 11 types of grammatical errors, namely errors in verbs, errors in prepositions, errors in auxiliary verbs, errors in noun formation, errors in articles, errors in gerunds, errors in clauses, errors in pronouns, errors in passive voice, errors in adjectives and errors in adverbs. They could detect and correct 11 of 14 types of all grammatical errors that were in all essays. Secondly, there were 3 additional types of grammatical errors that could not be identified by the students, namely errors in tenses, errors in quantifiers and errors in modal. Then, the other 11 types were same with the abovementioned identified grammatical errors. In other words, there were 14 types of grammatical errors that were listed in unidentified errors. Finally, lack of grammar understanding, the complexity of their friend's writing, the complexity of some English rules and lack of confidence of being correctors were the reasons why the students could not identify all grammatical errors in their friend's essay.

Based on the conclusions, several suggestions are addressed to English lecturers and future researchers. First, it is better for writing lecturers to ask the students to practice writing more essays and focus more on complicated grammatical structures. The complicated grammatical structures that were faced by the students in this study were the use of gerunds, articles and passive voice. Second, peer correction can be considered to be practiced after writing as a technique to stimulate and even improve students' awareness of grammatical rules and errors. It also encourages the students to be proofreaders who are more aware of ungrammatical structures. Finally for future researchers, the findings may be useful as one of the references for further related research about students' awareness of grammatical errors and the effectiveness of peer correction. This condition will be conducive if future researchers try to find ways to overcome students' lack of confidence in executing the peer correction process. In addition, perhaps using a peer correction technique to improve students' writing score and achievement may be investigated by future researchers.