DISERTASI dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM, 2009

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

Pengaruh Pembelajaran Metakognitif dalam Strategi Cooperative Script dan Reciprocal Teaching pada Kemampuan Akademik Berbeda terhadap Kemampuan dan Keterampilan Metakognitif, Berpikir Kritis, Hasil Belajar Biologi Siswa, serta Retensinya di SMP Negeri Man

Zusje Wiesje Merry Warouw

Abstrak


ABSTRAK

 

Warouw, Zusje W. M. 2009.  Pengaruh Pembelajaran Metakognitif dalam Strategi Cooperative Script dan Reciprocal Teaching pada Kemampuan Akademik Berbeda terhadap Kemampuan dan Keterampilan Metakognitif, Berpikir Kritis, Hasil Belajar Biologi Siswa, serta Retensinya di SMP Negeri Manado (Disertasi Program Studi Pendidikan Biologi Program Pascasarjana Universitas Negeri Malang. Pembimbing: (I) Prof. Dr. Aloysius Duran Corebima, M.Pd., (II) Prof. Dr. Muslimin Ibrahim, M.Pd., (III) Dr. Hj. Siti Zubaidah, M.Pd.)

 

Kata Kunci: metakognitif, cooperative script, reciprocal teaching, berpikir kritis, hasil belajar biologi , dan retensi

 

Pemberdayaan kemampuan berpikir kritis, kemampuan dan keterampilan metakognitif dapat dilakukan dengan menggunakan strategi pembelajaran yang memiliki karakteristik student centered. Penelitian ini diawali dengan penelitian survei untuk mengetahui gambaran umum pembelajaran biologi pada SMP Negeri di Manado melalui penyebaran kuesioner kepada guru-guru biologi. Hasil survei dianalisis menggunakan statistik deskriptif berupa persentase, terungkap umumnya guru-guru telah memenuhi kualifikasi akademik S1 70,7%; S2 9.76%. Pelaksanaan pembelajaran terungkap, sebagian besar (70,31%) pembelajaran biologi masih berlangsung dengan paradigma teacher centered, belum mengenal pembelajaran kooperatif (63,41%), belum pernah melaksanakan pembelajaran kooperatif (78,04%), mengetahui langkah pembelajaran CS (4.87%), dan  mengetahui langkah pembelajaran RT (0%), belum tahu arti kemampuan metakognitif (97,56%), bahkan 100% guru belum tahu pentingnya memberdayakan kemampuan metakognitif dalam pembelajaran. Solusi mengatasi masalah adalah mengembangkan strategi pembelajaran yang sesuai, yakni strategi metakognitif dan kooperatif yang diterapkan pada siswa berkemampuan akademik tinggi dan rendah. Penelitian survei merupakan pijakan melaksanakan penelitian eksperimen.

Penelitian eksperimen bertujuan mengungkap pengaruh strategi pembelajaran (CS+M, CS, Konvensional, RT+M, RT) terhadap kemampuan dan keterampilan metakognitif, kemampuan berpikir kritis, hasil belajar dan retensinya pada siswa SMPN di Kota Manado; pengaruh kemampuan akademik (akademik tinggi dan rendah) terhadap kemampuan dan keterampilan metakognitif, kemampuan berpikir kritis, hasil belajar dan retensinya; pengaruh interaksi strategi pembelajaran dan kemampuan akademik terhadap kemampuan dan keterampilan metakognitif, kemampuan berpikir kritis, hasil belajar dan retensinya.

Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode quasi eksperimen melalui rancangan “Pretest-postest Non-equivalent Control Group Design” versi faktorial 5 X 2. Data dianalisis dengan ANACOVA pada taraf signifikansi = 0,05. Jika   menunjukkan nilai Fhitung signifikan, maka perlu dilanjutkan dengan uji beda. Sebelum dilakukan uji kovarian, dilakukan uji normalitas, dan homogenitas data. Data hasil penelitian juga diuji dengan analisis regresi untuk mengetahui konsistensi penerapan setiap sintaks strategi pembelajaran selama satu semester. Populasi penelitian adalah semua siswa kelas VIII di SMP Negeri Manado. Sampel penelitian dengan teknik Cluster Random Sampling, didapat 10 kelas yaitu 5 kelas kemampuan akademik tinggi: kelas VIII 1 SMPN 4 (CS+M), kelas VIII D SMPN 1(CS), kelas VIII L SMPN 1 (RT+M), kelas VIII B SMPN 1 (RT), kelas VIII A SMPN 10 (Konvensional), dan 5 kelas kemampuan akademik rendah: kelas VIII 10 SMPN 7 (CS+M), kelas VIII D SMPN 3 (CS), kelas VIII 7 SMPN 8 (RT+M), kelas VIII 13 SMPN 8 (RT), dan kelas VIII 7 SMPN 7 (Konvensional); dengan jumlah 196 siswa sebagai subyek penelitian.

Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh strategi pembelajaran RT+M, RT, CS+M, dan CS terhadap kemampuan metakognitif siswa berkemampuan akademik tinggi, sedangkan strategi RT+M dapat memberdayakan kemampuan metakognitif siswa berkemampuan akademik rendah. Hasil penelitian ini juga menunjukkan bahwa strategi RT+M, CS+M, dan CS memiliki pengaruh yang singnifikan untuk meningkatkan keterampilan metakognitif siswa berkemampuan akademik rendah, sedangkan strategi pembelajaran RT+M dan CS+M memberdayakan keterampilan metakognitif siswa berkemampuan akademik tinggi. Demikian pula dengan kemampuan berpikir kritis, strategi pembelajaran CS, CS+M, dan RT+M efektif meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir kritis siswa berkemampuan akademik rendah dan strategi RT+M dan CS+M meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir kritis siswa berkemampuan akademik tinggi. Demikian pula dengan hasil belajar, hasil penelitian ini menemukan bahwa strategi CS+M dan CS meningkatkan hasil belajar siswa berkemampuan akademik rendah, sedangkan strategi RT+M meningkatkan hasil belajar  siswa berkemampuan akademik tinggi.

Pengaruh strategi pembelajaran CS, CS+M, RT, dan RT+M tidak hanya menentukan keberhasilan siswa selama pembelajaran tetapi juga memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap daya retensi siswa. Terungkap bahwa strategi RT+M dan CS+M meningkatkan daya retensi kemampuan metakognitif siswa akademik tinggi sedangkan strategi RT+M, CS, CS+M, dan RT meningkatkan daya retensi kemampuan metakongitif siswa akademik rendah. Terkait dengan daya retensi keterampilan metakognitif, strategi RT+M memiliki pengaruh yang lebih signifikan untuk meningkatkan keterampilan metakognitif siswa akademik tinggi sedangkan strategi CS+M dan RT efektif meningkatkan keterampilan metakognitif siswa akademik rendah pada retensi keterampilan metakognitif. Demikian pula dengan daya retensi kemampuan berpikir kritis, strategi RT+M dan CS+M memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis siswa akademik tinggi dan strategi RT, RT+M, dan CS+M memiliki pengaruh dan potensi yang sama untuk meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir kritis siswa akademik rendah. Selanjutnya, strategi RT+M juga berpengaruh signifikan terhadap daya retensi hasil belajar siswa berkemampuan akademik tinggi dan strategi RT, RT+M, dan CS+M juga memiliki potensi yang sama untuk meningkatkan hasil belajar siswa berkemampuan akademik rendah.

Berdasarkan temuan-temuan tersebut, maka secara umum dapat disimpulkan bahwa: 1) strategi RT+M, CS+M, RT, dan CS berpotensi meningkatkan kemampuan dan keterampilan metakognitif, kemampuan berpikir kritis, hasil belajar dan retensinya. 2) strategi pembelajaran RT+M, CS+M, RT dan CS dapat diterapkan dalam pembelajaran Sains Biologi  pada SMPN di Kota Manado. Mengacu pada hasil-hasil penelitian ini, maka peneliti menyarankan agar: 1) dalam melaksanakan pembelajaran Sains Biologi,  guru perlu menerapkan strategi CS+M, CS, RT, dan RT+M dalam pembelajaran, karena dapat memberdayakan kemampuan dan keterampilan metakognitif, kemampuan berpikir kritis, dan hasil belajar, serta daya retensi siswa. 2) bagi peneliti lain yang ingin melakukan kajian terhadap strategi-strategi pembelajaran yang telah dikembangkan, dapat melakukan kajian terkait dengan efektivitas strategi RT+M dan CS+M, dan dapat mengimplementasikan efektivitas kedua strategi tersebut.

 

ABSTRACT

 

Warouw, Zusje W.M. 2009. Influence of the Metacognitive Learning in Cooperative Script and Reciprocal Teaching Strategies on Different Academic Capabilities toward Metacognitive Skill and Capability, Critical Thinking, Result of the Biology Learning, as well as Their Retentions at the State Junior High Schools in Manado. Dissertation. Study Program of Biology Education, Postgraduate Program of State University of Malang, Advisor: (I) Prof. Dr. Aloysius Duran Corebima, M.Pd, (II) Prof. Dr. Muslimin Ibrahim, M.Pd., (III) Dr. Hj. Siti Zubaidah, M.Pd.

 

Keywords: metacognitive, cooperative script, reciprocal teaching, critical

                    thinking, result of the biology learning, and retention

 

Empowering critical thinking ability, metacognitive skills and ability can be carried out by applying student-centered learning strategy. This research was started by performing a research through survey in order to find out general description of biology learning at state junior high schools in Manado by delivering questionnaires to biology teachers. Results of the survey was analyzed using descriptive statistics in the form of percentage, which revealed that those teachers have met the academic qualification of 70.7% for bachelor’s degree; 9.76% for master’s degree. Implementation the of learning revealed that most of the biology learning (70.31%) has still applied teacher-centered paradigm, some has not known cooperative learning (63.41%), others has never carried out such cooperative learning (78.04%), recognized the steps in learning CS (4.87%), and recognized the steps in learning RT (0%), has not known the meaning of metacognitive capability (97.56%), and even 100% of the teachers have not recognized the importance of empowering metacognitive capability in learning. Solution for this problem is by developing suitable learning strategy, metacognitive and cooperative strategies, which will be applied on students who have both high and low academic capabilities. Research on survey was a foundation to carry out experiment research.

Objective of the experiment research was to reveal influence of the learning strategy (CS+M, CS, Conventional, RT+M, RT) toward metacognitive skills and capability, critical thinking capability, results of learning and their retentions toward students at state junior high schools in Manado; influence of academic capability (both high and low) toward metacognitive skills and capability, critical thinking capability, results of learning and their retentions; influence of academic capability and learning strategy interaction toward metacognitive skills and capability, critical thinking capability, results of learning and their retentions.

The research carried out using quasi-experiment method through “Pretest-posttest Non-equivalent Control Group Design” of factorial version 5 X 2. Data was analyzed using ANACOVA on significance level = 0.05. If it had significant value for Fcount, it will be continued to LSD. Before carrying out covariate test, it was required to have normality and data homogeneity test. Data of the research result has been tested using regression analysis to find out the implementation consistency of syntax on the learning strategy for one semester. Population of the research was the whole eighth-grade students of state junior high schools in Manado. Based on sample of the research using Cluster Random Sampling technique, it showed that 5 out of 10 classes had high academic capabilities: Class VIII 1 of SMPN 4 (CS+M), Class VIII D SMPN 1 (CS), Class VIII L of SMPN 1 (RT+M), Class VIII B of SMPN 1 (RT), Class VIII A of SMPN 10 (Conventional), and the rest of the 5 classes had low academic capabilities: Class VIII 10 of SMPN 7 (CS+M), Class VIII d of SMPN 3 (CS), Class VIII 7 of SMPN 8 (RT+M), Class VIII 13 of SMPN 8 (RT), and Class VIII 7 of SMPN 7 (Conventional); subject of the research was 196 students.

Result of the analysis showed the influence of learning strategies of RT+M, RT, CS+M, and CS toward metacognitive capability of the students who had high academic capabilities, while strategy of RT+M could empower metacognitive capability of the students who had low academic capabilities. Results of the research showed that strategy of RT+M, CS+M, and CS had significant influence in improving metacognitive skill of the students who had low academic capabilities, while learning strategies of RT+M and CS+M could empower metacognitive skill of the students who had high academic capabilities. As well as capabilities in critical thinking, learning strategy of CS, CS+M, and effective RT+M will improve capability in critical thinking of the students who had low academic capabilities and strategy of RT+M and CS+M could improve the critical thinking of the students who had high academic capabilities. Such was the learning result, the research found out that strategy of CS+M and CS would improve learning result of the students who had low academic capabilities, while strategy of RT+M would improve learning result of the students who had high academic capabilities.

Influence of learning strategies of CS, CS+M, RT, and RT+M did not only determine the students’ success in learning process, but also had significant influence toward retention of the students. It revealed that strategies of RT+M and CS+M would improve metacognitive capability retention of the students who had high academic capabilities, while strategies of RT+M, CS, CS+M, and RT would improve metacognitive capability retention of the students who had low academic capabilities. In relation to metacognitive skill retention, strategy of RT+M had more significant influence in improving metacognitive skill of the students who had high academic capabilities, while the effective strategy of CS+M and RT would improve metacognitive skill of the students who had low academic capabilities on retention of metacognitive skill. As such, retention in critical thinking capability, strategies of RT+M and CS+M had significant influence toward critical thinking capability of the students who had high academic capabilities and strategies of RT, RT+M, and CS+M had similar potency and influence in improving critical thinking capability of the students who had low academic capabilities. Furthermore, strategy of RT+M had significant influence toward retention of learning result of the students who had high academic capabilities, and strategies of RT, RT+M, and CS+M had similar potency in improving learning result of the students who had low academic capabilities.  

Based on those findings, some conclusions can be drawn as follow: 1) strategies of RT+M, CS+M, RT, and CS had potential in improving metacognitive skill and capability, critical thinking capability, learning results and their retention. 2) Learning strategies of RT+M, CS+M, RT and CS could be applied in learning Biology Science at state junior high schools in Manado. Referring to results of this research, the researcher suggested: 1) in carrying out Biology Science, the teachers should apply strategies of CS+M, CS, RT, and RT+M in learning process, because they would empower metacognitive skill and capability, critical thinking capability, learning results and their retention of the students. 2) for other researcher who wanted to review the developed-learning strategies, they would be able to review the strategy effectiveness of RT+M and CS+M, and implement effectiveness of both strategies.


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