DISERTASI dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM, 2009

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

Pengaruh Strategi Pembelajaran Kooperatif Snowballing dan Numbered Heads Together (NHT) pada Sekolah Multietnis terhadap Kemampuan Berpikir Kritis, Hasil Belajar Kognitif Sains Biologi dan Sikap Sosial Siswa SMP Samarinda.

Elsje Theodora Maasawet

Abstrak


ABSTRAK

Maasawet, Elsje Theodora. 2009. Pengaruh Strategi Pembelajaran Kooperatif Snowballing dan Numbered Heads Together (NHT) pada Sekolah Multietnis terhadap Kemampuan Berpikir Kritis, Hasil Belajar Kognitif Sains Biologi dan Sikap Sosial Siswa SMP Samarinda. Disertasi, Program Studi Pendidikan Biologi, Program Pascasarjana Universitas Negeri Malang.  Pembimbing (I) Prof. Dr. Aloysius Duran Corebima, M.Pd, (II). Dr. Agr. Mohamad Amin, M.Si.(III) Dr. Hj. Siti Zubaidah. M.Pd.

 

Kata kunci: Kooperatif Snowballing, NHT, Multietnis, Berpikir Kritis, Hasil Belajar Kognitif Sains Biologi, Sikap Sosial

 

Dunia pendidikan yang semakin meningkat dewasa ini menunjukkan semakin tinggi tingkat kepedulian pemerhati maupun praktisi pendidikan untuk meningkatkan kualitas pendidikan. Keragaman etnis diakui ataupun tidak  dapat menimbulkan berbagai persoalan yang dihadapi di masyarakat secara khusus keragaman etnis siswa di sekolah. Pendidikan multietnis menawarkan satu alternatif penanganan melalui penerapan strategi dan konsep pendidikan yang berbasis pemanfaatan keragaman yang ada di masyarakat, khususnya yang ada pada siswa seperti keragaman etnis, budaya, bahasa, agama, status sosial, gender, kemampuan, umur dan ras. Pendidikan berperan dalam pembentukan sikap sosial, karena sikap sosial terbentuk dari adanya interaksi sosial yang dialami individu. Samarinda merupakan salah satu daerah di Indonesia yang memiliki keragaman etnis. Sejumlah etnis hidup menetap di Samarinda, antara lain etnis Jawa,  Banjar,  Bugis,  Kutai,  Dayak,  Batak,  Ambon,  Manado,  Cina,  Buton, dan etnis Madura. Perbedaan etnis tersebut ditengarai berpengaruh terhadap proses dan hasil pembelajaran. Survai menunjukkan bahwa hasil belajar siswa kelas VIII SMP di Samarinda masih rendah, yang terlihat dari sebagian besar siswa sering mengikuti remidial karena skor yang diperoleh belum memenuhi kriteria ketuntasan minimal yang ditetapkan di SMP Samarinda yaitu 75%. Pencapaian Kriteria Ketuntasan Minimal (KKM) untuk sains Biologi pada tahun 2008 hanya 47%, padahal guru secara maksimal telah mengembangkan KKM. Untuk menjawab permasalahan terkait dengan keberagaman etnis dan rendahnya hasil belajar siswa maka dibutuhkan strategi pembelajaran dengan pendekatan multietnis.

Strategi pembelajaran yang dapat memfasilitasi proses pembelajaran siswa multietnis akan sangat membantu meningkatkan hasil belajar siswa. Strategi pembelajaran yang dapat diterapkan pada siswa multietnis adalah strategi pembelajaran kooperatif  Snowballing dan NHT. Strategi pembelajaran kooperatif Snowballing adalah strategi yang sederhana tetapi memiliki keunggulan yakni dapat memberikan kesempatan kepada siswa untuk berpikir analisis bahkan sintesis. Keunggulan  strategi pembelajaran kooperatif NHT yaitu setiap siswa menjadi siap, melakukan diskusi dengan sungguh-sungguh, serta siswa yang pandai dapat mengajari siswa yang kurang pandai, bahkan berpotensi memberdayakan kemampuan berpikir siswa. Kemampuan berpikir kritis merupakan proses kognitif dan aktivitas untuk memperoleh pengetahuan. Pembelajaran sains Biologi dengan metode yang tepat, diharapkan menjadi sarana pengembangan kemampuan berpikir siswa, sehingga meningkatkan hasil belajar.

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh strategi pembelajaran Snowballing dan NHT terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis, hasil belajar kognitif dan berperan dalam pengembangan sikap sosial pada siswa multietnis SMP di Samarinda.  Kegiatan penelitian terdiri dari 2 tahap, yakni tahap: 1) penelitian survai, tentang pembelajaran yang dilaksanakan di kelas, metode pembelajaran biologi yang dilakukan oleh guru, pemahaman guru tentang strategi pembelajaran Snowballing dan NHT serta keberadaan siswa multietnis di SMP Samarinda; 2) penelitian quasi eksperimen, untuk menguji pengaruh perangkat pembelajaran yaitu Silabus, RPP dan LKS, terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis, hasil belajar kognitif sains biologi, dan sikap sosial siswa SMP pada kelas eksperimen (SMP 2, 5, 6, 7, 11, dan 21) . Hasil penelitian survai menunjukkan bahwa Guru sains biologi SMP Samarinda telah memiliki kualifikasi akademik tingkat pendidikan sarjana (90,54%), magister (5,40%), diploma II (1,35%). Kegiatan pelatihan/diklat yang telah diikuti guru: IPA KTS, RAPS, Sosialisasi KTSP, MGMP. Strategi pembelajaran kooperatif yang digunakan, Jigsaw, STAD, TPS, STAD-TPS. Keberagaman etnis dalam kelas yaitu: 3 etnis siswa (5,41%), 4 etnis siswa (28,38%), 5 etnis siswa (31,08%), 6 etnis siswa (31,08%), 7 etnis siswa (1,35%), 8 etnis siswa (2,70%). Bahasa pengantar yang dipakai dalam kelas VIII SMP: Bahasa Indonesia (86,49%), Bahasa Inggris (2,70%), Bahasa Jawa (2,70%), Bahasa Kutai (1,35%), Bahasa Banjar (6,76%). Penilaian hasil belajar yang digunakan guru di SMP Samarinda, penilaian dengan portofolio (58,11%), paper and pencil test (21,62%), dan tes performasi (13,51%).

Hasil uji Anakova menunjukkan 1) terdapat pengaruh strategi pembelajaran Snowballing terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis, hasil belajar kognitif dan sikap sosial siswa; 2) terdapat pengaruh strategi pembelajaran NHT terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis, hasil belajar kognitif dan sikap sosial siswa;  3) terdapat pengaruh multietnis terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis, hasil belajar kognitif dan sikap sosial siswa;  4) terdapat interaksi yang signifikan antara strategi pembelajaran dengan etnis terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis, hasil belajar kognitif dan sikap sosial siswa; 5) Strategi pembelajaran Snowballing paling baik pengaruhnya terhadap  kemampuan berpikir kritis, hasil belajar kognitif dan sikap sosial siswa; 6) siswa etnis Jawa  memiliki kemampuan berpikir kritis dan hasil belajar kognitif yang paling tinggi dibanding dengan siswa etnis Banjar, etnis Bugis, etnis Kutai dan etnis Dayak; 7) siswa etnis Banjar memiliki sikap sosial yang lebih tinggi dibanding dengan sikap sosial etnis Jawa, etnis Kutai, etnis Bugis dan etnis Dayak; 8) interaksi strategi Snowballing pada siswa etnis Jawa lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan strategi NHT dan Konvensional pada siswa etnis Banjar, etnis Bugis, etnis Kutai dan etnis Dayak. Siswa etnis Jawa, etnis Banjar, etnis Kutai dan etnis Dayak sangat cocok diterapkan strategi pembelajaran Snowballing sedangkan siswa etnis Bugis sangat cocok diterapkan strategi pembelajaran NHT.

 Atas dasar hasil penelitian, merekomendasi penggunaan strategi Snowballing dan NHT untuk memberdayakan kemampuan berpikir kritis, hasil belajar kognitif siswa, dan sikap sosial siswa pada sekolah multietnis. Khusus untuk guru sains biologi SMP Samarinda hendaknya mengimplementasikan strategi kooperatif Snowballing dan NHT pada pembelajaran, karena terbukti dapat meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir kritis, hasil belajar kognitif sains biologi, dan sikap sosial siswa. Disarankan perlu dilakukan penelitian lanjut dalam kaitan dengan pendidikan multietnis dari aspek sosial, ekonomi dan budaya.


ABSTRACT

Maasawet, Elsje Theodora. 2009. The Influence of  the Snowballing Cooperative Learning and Numbered Heads Together (NHT) upon Multi-ethinic schools in Critical Thinking, Generated from Biology Science Cognitive learning and the Samarinda SMP students’ Social Attitude, A Dissertation, the Biological Education Study Program, Post Graduate Program of State University of Malang, under the First Supervisor Prof. Dr. Aloysius Duran Corebima, M.Pd, 2nd Supervisor Dr. Agr. Mohamad Amin, M.Si. The 3rd Supervsisor Dr. Hj. Siti Zubaidah. M.Pd.

 

Key words: Snowballing Cooperative, NHT, Multi-ethic, Ciritical Thinking, -Biology Science cognitive Learning Results, Social Attitude

 

The educational world has recently shown that there have been more and more educational observers and practisioners who care about education, particularly in trying to imporve the quality of education. The ethnical variety can inevitably trigger different problems confronted by the community, particularly the students’ ethincial background at schools. Multi-ethnical education offers an alternative solution through the application of strategy and educational concepts through the use of the existing ethnical variety found in the community, particularly  that which is found in students sucah as the ethnical, cultural, language, religious variety, social, gender status, ability, age and races. Education plays role in forming social attitude, as it is formed through the social interaction experienced by individuals. Samarinda is among many other citis in Indonesia that has an ethnical variety. The number of ethnics found to have inhabited Samarinda are: Javanese, Banjarese,  Buginese,  Kutainese,  Dayaks,  Bataks,  Ambonese,  Manadonese,  Chinese,  Butonese, and Maduranese. Ethnical differences were assumed to have an influence upon the learning process and results. Survey showed that the VIII grade SMP students’ learning results in Samarinda was was still low, indicated by the frequent remedial instructions given to most of students due to the unfinished minimum scoring criteria they have achieved, which iis determined 75% for SMPs’ in Samarinda. The achievement of Minimum Comprehensive Criteria for Biology science in 2008 was only 47%, in fact, the teachers have already developed their minimum Comprehensive Criteria as maximum as possible. To answer the problem concerning the ethnical variety and the low learning results achieved by students, there must a learning strategy with a multi-ethnical approach. The learning strategy that can faciliate these multi-ethnical students will be very helpful in improving their learning results. The learning strategy that can be applied upon multi-ethnical students is the Snowballing cooperative learning strategy and NHT. The Snowballing cooperative strategy is a simple strategy, but has benefits that give students opportunities to think analytically and they can even synthesize. The NHT cooperative learning strategy, on the other hands has benefits where every student becomes prepared to conduct serious discussion, and they can help their weak partners by teaching them, and it can potentially help empower the students’ critical thinking. Critical thinking ability is a cognitive process and a medium to gain knowledge. Biology science learning is an appropriate method expected to be able to develop students thinking ability, affecting their learning results. This study aims to find out the influence of the Snowballing strategy and NHT upon critical thinking, cognitive learning results, and they both play role in developing social attitude of multi-ethnic SMP students in Samarinda. Activites in the study consist of 2 stages: 1) survey research on learning conducted in the classrooms, biology learning method conducted upon the teachers, their understanding of the Snowballing strategy  and NHT conducted upon them, and the existance of multi-ethnic variety in SMPs; in Samarinda; 2) the experiment-quasy reserach, to test the influence of learning syllabus known as RPP and LKS, upon the ability in critical thinking, biology science cognitive learning results, and the SMP students’ social attitude taken from the experimented classrooms (SMP 2, 5, 6, 7, 11, and 21). Results of the reserach shows that the SMP biology science teachers in Samarinda have had academic qualifications: sarjana degree (90,54%), magister (5,40%), diploma II (1,35%). The training or courses that they have followed are as follows: IPA KTS, RAPS, Socialization KTSP, MGMP. The cooperative learning strategy used are Jigsaw, STAD, TPS, STAD-TPS. Ethnical variety in the classrooms are: 3 ethnic groups within a classroom (5,41%), 4 etnics within a classroom (28,38%), 5 ethinics within a classroom (31,08%), 6 ethnic group (31,08%), 7 ethnic group (1,35%), 8 ethnic group (2,70%). The media of instruction used in the VIII grade SMPs are Indonesian (86,49%), English (2,70%), Javanese(2,70%), Kutainese (1,35%), Banjarese (6,76%). The scoring results used by SMP teachers in Samarinda are portofolio (58,11%), paper and pencil test (21,62%), and performance test (13,51%).

Results of the Anacove tests indicated that 1) there is a significant result of the Snowballing learning strategy upon the critical thinking, cognitive learning result and students’ social attitude; 2) there is a significan influence in using the NHT learning strategy upon critical thinking, cognitive learning results and the students’ social attitude; 3) there is a significan influence of multi-ethnic condition upon critical thinking, cognitive learning result and stuents’ social attitude;  4) there is a significan interaction between the ethnics and critical thinking ability, cognitive learning results and students social attitude; 5) Snowballing learning strategy has the most significant influence upon critical thinking ability, cognitive learning results and students’ social attitude; 6) Javanese-ethnic students have the highest critical thinking ability and cognitie learning results compared to the ther ethnic groups sucah as Banjarese, Buginese, Kutainese and Dayaks; 7) The Banjarese ethnic students have the highest social attitude compared with Javanese, Kutainese, Buginese, and Dayak ethnic groups. 8) The interaction of Snowballing stategy with Javanese ethnic was found to be the highest compared with the NHT strategy and the conventional treatement within Banjarese, Buginese, Kutainese and Dayaks Ethnic. Javanese students, Banjarese ethnic, Kutainese ethnic, and Dayaks ethnic are the most suitable to be applied with Snowballing strategy while the Buginese ethnic students are the most suitable to be applied with NHT learning strategy. Based on the study findings, the use of snowballing and NHT  strategies are well-recommended to empower critical thinking ability and students cognitive learning results in schools with multi-ethnic groups. The SMP biology science teachers of samarinda are suggested that they implment both snowballing cooperative and NHT strategies, as they have been proved to have been able to improve students’ critical thinking ability, cognitive learning results and social attitude. It is suggested that further study be conducted concerning multi-ethnic groups viewed from other different aspects such as social, economical and cultural aspects.