DISERTASI dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM, 2009

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

Reciprocal Teaching Method to Improve the students’ Comprehension of Certain Aspects of the English Short Stories at UIN Malang (Universitas Islam Negeri Malang). (Thesis)

Lina Hanifiyah


The fact emerging from the teaching of English short stories at UIN Malang is the low ability of the students in comprehending certain aspects of the English short stories related to some aspects of plot concentrated on conflict, climax and resolution, and message of the English short stories. The results of the preliminary study showed several findings: (1) The students still had difficulty to find out certain aspects English short stories related to some aspects of plot concentrated on the conflict, climax and  resolution and the massage, (2) The students had low motivation in reading  English short stories  and were not interested in reading activities, (3) Most students were passive and not enthusiastic  in the learning and teaching process, (4) The flawed strategy of  reading comprehension skill of English short stories. To cope with the problems, the researcher applies RTM. With such learning method, it is expected  that the students' reading comprehension of the English short stories can be improved.

The objective of the present study is to describe the Reciprocal Teaching Method in the teaching of certain aspects of the English short stories that can  improve the students' comprehension related to some aspects of plot concentrated on conflict, climax and resolution, and message. This strategy was implemented to the fourth semester students of reading III class at State Islamic University  of Malang academic year 2007/2008. This study is Classroom Action Research with a collaborative design. The procedure of the research consisted of four major steps, they are planning, implementation, observation, and reflection through cycles. Each cycle consisted of two meetings and three meetings for pre-test, the theory of short story elements and training session. During the implementation, the researcher acted as the practitioner helped by the reading lecturer acting as the collaborator to observe the action. To collect data, some instruments were used such as pre-test, observation sheets, field notes, English short story quizzes, and questionnaire.  The data taken from pretest and the four quizzes were analyzed and presented quantitatively. Meanwhile, the data that were derived from observation sheets and field notes were analyzed and presented qualitatively.

Based on the research findings, it was concluded that predicting activities was done in pre-reading stages. It covered the activities of activating the students' prior knowledge.  The teacher wrote the title of the English short story on the white board and showed some pictures related to the short story. She also gave some guiding questions such as " Can you  guess what  the relationship between the man and the little girl in the picture is? Why does the little girl hold  the book?do you know what the man is doing here?Can you predict  what is going on here?" It functioned to prepare the students, to set the reading purposes, and to stimulate the students' interest for the upcoming story. While clarifying, questioning, and summarizing were done in the whilst reading stage. In clarifying, the clarifiers learned how to clarify the unfamiliar words through dictionary or discussing with their own group. While in questioning, the questioners made their own questions, including some aspects of plot, concentrated on conflict, climax, and resolution and also the message of the English short story. Then they discussed  the possible answer of their own questions in groups. Here, all the students helped one another. the students were encouraged to see the benefits of working together, to learn to tolerate, to learn to help, and to enact their roles. The last activity in this stage was summarizing. Here, the students had a discussion on what to summarize in groups and write a summary about the short story content on Reciprocal Teaching worksheet given in the beginning of the meeting. While in the Post-reading Stage, the students are given English short story quiz to check their understanding about some aspects of plot concentrated on conflicts, climax, and resolution, and also the message of  the English short story. Here, they did their quiz individually.

The RTM implementation brought significant improvement on the students' involvement and achievement. In the students' involvement in the second cycle, in meeting 1 and meeting 2, the students were encouraged to see the benefits of working together, to learn to tolerate, to learn to help, and to enact their roles. As a results, all the groups were active to accomplish the task together, some of them started to ask for and to give help in the groups. Lastly, the students had a positive response toward the implementation of RTM. The method was able to make them motivated to study because they could learn from one another by sharing ideas among the teammates. The students could also increase their understanding of the English short stories  because they  gave help and received help from their group mates and the researcher. Furthermore, they could spend less time on task when working together in a group.

While in the students' achievement, In cycle 2, meeting 2, this improvement was successful in fulfilling all of the criteria of success. Nineteen students could get more than or equal to 70, while the extent of their involvement reached the category of very good, meaning that almost every students accomplished the tasks with strong eagerness, self motivation, and self confidence as expected. Besides, the students were more motivated and active to study using the method. They learned to work together and to help one another in a group with different abilities. Regarding to the students' achievement, the mean score of the last quiz in cycle 2 increased to 72,375 comprised to the mean of the pre-test result 56,25. Regarding  to the students' responses toward the RTM strategy, it was noted that they found the strategy very helpful in comprehending the short story content. All of them agreed to the application of RTM strategy in reading class.

Based on the findings of the research, it is advisable for the lecturers to  apply RTM in teaching reading comprehension to their students. Furthermore, future researchers are suggested to conduct similar studies on the other skills like listening, speaking, and writing and at the other levels of the students for the improvement of the teaching of English or to carry out an experimental study on the same skill in order to verify the present result.