DISERTASI dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM, 2013

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

Peningkatan Kemampuan Menulis Karangan Narasi Berdasarkan Pengalaman Pribadi dengan Strategi Genius Learning pada Siswa MI Darut Taqwa Pasuruan. (Tesis)

Achmad Yusuf

Abstrak


ABSTRAK

 

Yusuf, Achmad. 2012. Peningkatan Kemampuan Menulis Karangan Narasi Berdasarkan Pengalaman Pribadi dengan Strategi Genius Learning pada Siswa MI Darut Taqwa Pasuruan. Tesis, Program Studi Pendidikan Dasar, Pascasarjana, Universitas Negeri Malang. Pembimbing (I) Dr. Muakibatul Hasanah, M.Pd. (II) Prof. Dr. Suyono, M.Pd

 

Kata Kunci: strategi genius learning, kemampuan menulis karangan narasi, pengalaman pribadi.

Menulis merupakan kemampuan yang harus dikuasai oleh siswa sekolah dasar/madrasah ibtidaiyah (MI) sebagaimana diamanatkan dalam kurikulum yaitu siswa mampu menulis karangan berdasarkan pengalaman dengan memperhatikan pilihan kata dan penggunaan ejaan. Akan tetapi pada kenyataannya berdasarkan hasil studi pendahuluan diketahui bahwa sebagian besar nilai rata-rata kemampuan menulis karangan narasi berdasarkan pengalaman pribadi siswa kelas V MI Darut Taqwa rendah. Dari jumlah 38 siswa, diketahui 23 siswa memperoleh nilai di bawah KKM (75), sedangkan 15 siswa belum mampu menyelesaikan tugas karangannya. Hal ini ditandai: (1) antusiasme siswa dalam mengikuti pembelajaran menulis pengalaman pribadi kurang; (2) respon dan minat siswa sangat kurang; (3) rendahnya inisiatif dan imajinasi siswa dalam pembelajaran menulis pengalaman pribadi; (4) siswa kurang aktif dalam memberikan ide dan kurang bekerjasama dengan temannya dalam membuat karangan; dan (5) siswa kurang mampu mengembangkan karangan narasi. Penyebab kurangnya kemampuan menulis karangan narasi berdasarkan pengalaman pribadi adalah penerapan strategi dalam pembelajaran menulis pengalaman pribadi masih terpusat pada guru (teacher centered), bersifat monoton, dan kurang bervariasi.

 

Untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut, salah satu strategi yang efektif untuk meningkatkan kualitas proses kemampuan menulis karangan narasi yaitu diterapkannya strategi genius learning. Strategi ini menggunakan gaya belajar siswa (modalitas) visual, auditori, dan kinestetik yang diterapkan terdiri atas tiga tahap, pra menulis, saat menulis, dan pasca menulis.

 

Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif/kritis dengan rancangan penelitian tindakan kelas melalui empat tahap (1) rencana tindakan, (2) pelaksanaan tindakan, (3) observasi, dan (4) refleksi. Data penelitian ini terdiri dari data proses pembelajaran strategi genius learning dan data hasil kemampuan menulis karangan narasi. Data proses diperoleh dari aktivitas belajar siswa pada tahap pra menulis, saat menulis, dan pasca menulis. Data hasil diperoleh dari karangan siswa. Instrumen utama dalam penelitian ini adalah peneliti dibantu guru kolaborator dengan menggunakan lembar pedoman observasi aktivitas siswa, pedoman rubrik penilaian hasil karangan. Kriteria keberhasilan dari pembelajaran menulis pada penelitian ini adalah 75% siswa mendapat nilai sesuai dengan KKM yaitu 75.

 

Berdasarkan temuan penelitian, penerapan strategi genius learning untuk meningkatkan kemampuan menulis karangan narasi berdasarkan pengalaman pribadi dengan langkah: (1) tahap pra menulis (a) mengondisikan suasana, (b) menghubungkan materi dengan pengalaman, (c) membuat gambaran besar (mind mapping), dan (d) menetapkan tujuan pembelajaran; (2) tahap saat menulis (a) memasukkan informasi, (b) mengaktifkan pengetahuan, (c) mendemonstrasikan; dan (3) tahap pasca menulis yakni mengulangi dan menjangkarkan.

 

Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa penerapan strategi genius learning dapat meningkatkan kualitas proses dan kualitas hasil kemampuan menulis karangan narasi pada siswa kelas V MI Darut Taqwa Pasuruan. Peningkatan kualitas proses dibuktikan dengan rata-rata persentase yang terus meningkat dari siklus I-II. Secara umum pada keempat aspek berkategori sangat baik (86-100) yaitu aspek respon (97%), motivasi (98%), keaktifan (92%), dan kerjasama (90%). Aspek respon ditandai dengan ekspresi yang sangat senang, banyak bertanya, dan menunjukan wajah berseri-seri serta gembira pada saat siswa mengikuti pembelajaran menulis pengalaman pribadi. Aspek motivasi ditandai dengan sikap sangat bersemangat dan segera melakukan setiap tugas-tugas yang diberikan guru saat pembelajaran. Aspek keaktifan ditandai dengan aktivitas siswa yang sangat aktif berpendapat, aktif memberikan ide pada teman dan selalu terlibat saat melakukan kegiatan pengamatan. Aspek kerjasama ditandai dengan aktivitas siswa mampu bekerjasama dengan sangat baik bersama anggota kelompok saat pembelajaran menulis pengalaman pribadi.

 

Hasil kemampuan menulis karangan narasi terbukti meningkat, diketahui nilai rata-rata penilaian aspek kemampuan menulis karangan narasi dari 22% pada pra tindakan menjadi 76% pada siklus I dan menjadi 89% pada siklus II. Adapun secara terinci aspek narasi siklus I sebagian besar (56%) baik (76-85); sisanya (41%) cukup (66-75), dan (3%) kurang (56-65), meningkat lagi pada siklus II sebagian besar (62%) baik (76-85); dan (22%) sangat baik (86-100); sisanya (16%) cukup. Aspek penggunaan bahasa pada siklus I sebagian besar (61%) cukup (66-75); sisanya (37%) baik (76-85), dan (2%) kurang, siklus II sebagian besar (66%) baik (76-85), dan (7%) sangat baik (86-100); sisanya (25%) cukup (66-75). Aspek mekanikal pada siklus I sebagian besar (68%) baik (76-100) dan (12%) sangat baik; sisanya (24%) cukup (66-75), dan (3%) kurang, siklus II sebagian besar (54%) sangat baik (86-100) dan (38%) baik (76-85); sisanya (6%) cukup (66-75), dan (1%) kurang.

 

Berdasarkan temuan penelitian, disarankan kepada guru SD agar menerapkan strategi genius learning sebagai salah satu alternatif untuk meningkatkan kemampuan menulis karangan narasi atau karangan yang lain. berdasarkan pengalaman pribadi, mengondisikan suasana kelas dengan cara melaksanakan senam otak, menyambut kedatangan siswa dengan ramah, agar siswa merasa aman dan nyaman agar lebih siap belajar, serta menggunakan pemanfaatan media pembelajaran berdasarkan gaya belajar siswa visual, auditori, dan kinestetik (modalitas).

 

ABSTRACT

 

Yusuf, Ahmad. 2012. Writing Narrative Writing Capacity Based on Personal Experience with Genius Learning Strategies on Students Pasuruan MI Darut Taqwa. Thesis, Basic Education Program, Graduate School, State University of Malang. Advisor (I) Dr. Muakibatul Hasanah, M.Pd. (II) Prof. Dr. Suyono, M.Pd

 

Keywords: genius learning strategies, the ability to write a narrative essay, personal experience.

Writing is the ability to be controlled by the primary students / madrasah (MI) as mandated in the curriculum of the students were able to write an essay based on the experience with respect to the use of word choice and spelling. But in fact, based on the results of preliminary studies it is known that most of the average value of the ability to write a narrative essay based on personal experience Grade V MI Darut Taqwa is low. 23 of 38 students received grades known under KKM (75), while 15 students have not been able to complete the task of writing. It is marked: (1) the enthusiasm of students in participating learning in writing personal experience, (2) the response and interest of the students are very less, (3) lack of initiative and imagination of students learning in writing personal experience, (4) students are less active in providing ideas and lack of cooperation with his friend in an essay, and (5) students are less able to develop a narrative essay. The cause of the lack of ability to write a narrative essay based on personal experience is the implementation of the strategy in learning how to write personal experience is centered on the teacher (teacher centered), monotonous and less varied.

 

To solve the problem, one effective strategy to improve the quality of the process is the ability to write a narrative essay that strategies genius learning. This strategy uses students' learning styles (modalities) visual, auditory, and kinesthetic applied consists of three stages: pre-writing, when writing, and post-writing.

 

This study uses a qualitative approach /critical to the design of classroom action research through the four stages of (1) a plan of action, (2) the implementation of the action, (3) observation, and (4) reflection. The data of this study consist of data genius learning process learning strategies and data results narrative essay writing skills. The data process are obtained from student learning activities in the pre-writing stage, when writing, and post-writing. The data obtained from the results of student essays. The main instrument in this study was a collaborator with researchers helped the teachers use student activity sheets observation, assessment rubric guidelines fabricated. The success criteria of learning to write in this study was 75% of students scored in accordance with the KKM is 75.

 

According to research, the application of genius learning strategies to enhance the ability to write a narrative essay based on personal experience with the steps: (1) the pre-writing (a) condition the atmosphere, (b) connect the material to the experience, (c) make the big picture (mind mapping) , and (d) establishing learning objectives, (2) the current stage of writing (a) to enter information, (b) to enable knowledge, (c) demonstrate, and (3) the post writes that repeats and anchor.

 

The results of this study indicate that the application of genius learning strategies can improve the process and quality of the ability to write a narrative essay in class V MI Darut Taqwa Pasuruan. Improving the quality of the process is evidenced by the average percentage increase of the cycle I-II. In general, the four aspects of the category of very good (86-100) which aspects of the response (97%), motivation (98%), active (92%), and collaboration (90%). Aspect of the response is characterized by a very pleased expression, many questions, and show beaming with joy when students take learning to write personal experience. Motivational aspects marked by very excited and immediately perform any tasks that the teacher while teaching. Aspects of the activity is characterized by a very active student activity found, actively provide ideas on friends and always involved when conducting observations. Aspects of cooperation is characterized by the activity students were able to work very well with other members of the group while learning to write personal experience.

 

The results were proved the ability to write a narrative essay increases, known mean value judgment aspect of narrative essay writing skills at the pre-action 22% to 76% in the first cycle and to 89% in the second cycle. The detailed aspects of the narrative cycle I mostly (56%) either (76-85), the rest (41%) is sufficient (66-75), and (3%) less (56-65), increased again in the second cycle portion large (62%) either (76-85), and (22%) were excellent (86-100), the rest (16%) enough. The majority aspects of the use of language in the first cycle (61%) sufficient (66-75), the rest (37%) either (76-85), and (2%) less, most of the second cycle (66%) good (76 - 85), and (7%) were excellent (86-100), the rest (25%) is sufficient (66-75). Mechanical aspects of the first cycle the majority (68%) Good (76-100) and (12%) is very good, the rest (24%) is sufficient (66-75), and (3%) less, the majority of the second cycle (54 %) excellent (86-100) and (38%) either (76-85), the rest (6%) enough (66-75), and (1%) less.

 

Based on the research findings, it is suggested that elementary teachers genius learning strategy as an alternative to improve the ability to write a narrative essay or any other essay. based on personal experience, classroom conditions by carrying out brain exercises, students with a friendly welcome, so that students feel enjoy and comfortable to be more ready to learn, and use of instructional media utilization based on student learning styles such as visual, auditory, and kinesthetic (modalities).