DISERTASI dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM, 2012

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

Pengembangan Bahan Ajar Modul Multimedia Kompetensi Dasar Atmosfer untuk Kelas X Sekolah Menengah Atas. (Tesis)

Wahyu Widiastuti

Abstrak


ABSTRAK

Widiastuti, Wahyu. 2012. Pengembangan Bahan Ajar Modul Multimedia Kompetensi Dasar Atmosfer untuk Kelas X Sekolah Menengah Atas. Tesis. Program Studi Pendidikan Geografi. Program Pasca Sarjana Universitas Negeri Malang. Pembimbing: (I) Prof. Dr. Edy Purwanto M.Pd, (II) Prof. Dr. Ach. Fatchan, M.Pd, M. P

Kata Kunci: bahan ajar, atmosfer, multimedia

Pemakaian bahan ajar yang salah dan tidak tepat akan berakibat pada rendahnya kualitas pembelajaran. Kondisi bahan ajar dan buku teks geografi yang selama ini digunakan siswa masih menunjukkan beberapa kesalahan. Hal ini menyebabkan siswa sulit untuk memahami bahan ajar tesebut. Bahan ajar yang disusun dalam bentuk modul multimedia memungkinkan siswa belajar mandiri dan tuntas. Materi atmosfer, misalnya akan lebih mudah dipahami jika disajikan dalam bentuk multimedia yang menampilkan teks dan gambar (foto, animasi, dan film).

Modul yang disusun secara sistematis memungkinkan siswa belajar sesuai dengan kecepatan mereka sendiri tanpa bergantung pada orang lain atau dengan bimbingan yang sangat terbatas dari fasilitator/guru. Dengan demikian, penulisan bahan ajar dalam bentuk modul multimedia dimaksudkan untuk: 1) memperjelas dan mempermudah penyajian pesan pembelajaran geografi agar tidak hanya bersifat verbal, 2) mengatasi keterbatasan waktu, ruang, dan daya indera, 3) memungkinkan diakses secara terpisah dan mandiri.

Untuk mencapai tujuan tersebut dilakukan penelitian pengembangan dengan menggunakan model Borg and Gall. Dalam model tersebut langkah-langkahnya disederhanakan menjadi sembilan tahap yaitu: analisis buku teks, perencanaan, mengembangkan produk, validasi ahli, revisi, uji coba skala kecil, revisi, uji coba lapangan, dan revisi produk. Modul multimedia atmosfer dibagi menjadi tiga, yaitu: 1) dinamika unsur-unsur cuaca I, 2) dinamika unsur-unsur cuaca II, dan 3) klasifikasi iklim.

Produk bahan ajar modul berbentuk multimedia diuji validitas dan kelayakannya melalui tiga tahap, yaitu; 1) validitas ahli, yaitu ahli isi/materi dan desain pembelajaran; 2) uji coba skala kecil; dan 3) uji coba lapang. Uji coba skala kecil dan uji coba lapang bertujuan mengetahui respon siswa terhadap bahan ajar tersebut dan mengukur kemampuan mereka memahami teks. Respon siswa dikumpulkan melalui angket, sedangkan kemampuan siswa memahami teks diukur menggunakan tes. Hasil validasi dan ujicoba digunakan untuk revisi produk.

Kemampuan siswa memahami teks rata-rata sebesar 88,5% pada uji coba skala kecil. Nilai prates-pascates mengalami peningkatan sebesar 25% modul pertama, modul kedua terjadi peningkatan 23,4% dan modul ketiga sebesar 23,4%. Pada uji coba lapangan modul pertama terjadi peningkatan nilai prates-pascates sebesar 25,2%, pada modul kedua terjadi peningkatan 22%, sedangkan pada modul ketiga sebesar 28,4%. Kemampuan siswa memahami teks rata-rata 89,5%.

Berdasarkan analisis data, produk direvisi untuk memperbaiki kesalahan. Revisi produk dilakukan melalui dua tahap. Pertama, revisi didasarkan pada saran ahli desain pembelajaran dan ahli isi atmosfer. Kedua, revisi dilakukan berdasarkan temuan dari hasil uji coba skala kecil dan uji coba lapangan.

Hasil analisis terhadap produk ditemukan beberapa kelemahan, yaitu: 1) produk sulit digunakan jika siswa tidak memiliki komputer/laptop, 2) bahan ajar tidak memuat narasi verbal yang dibacakan, 3) beberapa film tidak memiliki terjemahan dalam bahasa Indonesia, 4) tidak semua guru mampu meng-update bahan ajar. Oleh karena, itu diusulkan kepada pengembang lebih lanjut untuk memperbaiki kelemahan-kelemahan tersebut. Saran perbaikan yang diusulkan yakni untuk menghasilkan bahan ajar modul multimedia yang berkualitas tinggi dibutuhkan waktu penelitian dan pengembangan yang relatif lama (multy years) dan dieksperimenkan untuk mengetahui pengaruhnya terhadap hasil belajar.


 

ABSTRACT

Widiastuti, Wahyu. 2012. Developing Multimedia Modules for Teaching-Learning Materials for The basic-Competence Atmospherics for Grade X of Senior High School Students. A Thesis. Department of Geography Education. Post Graduate Program. Malang State University. Consultant: 1) Prof. Dr. Edy Purwanto, M. Pd, II) Prof. Dr. Ach. Fatchan, M. Pd, M.P

Key words: teaching-materials , atmospherics (the atmosphere), multimedia

The uses of wrong and in appropriate teaching-materials will bring about the low-quality of learning.The teaching-materials and text books being used so far have proven to many errors, which resulted in students' difficulties in understanding school-subjects. Developing teaching-materials in the form of multimedia-modules enables students not only to study independently but also throughly (mastery-learning). The atmosphere-subject matter is more easily-understood by the students when it is presented through in multimedia such as photos, animations, and films.

The use of modules which have been systematically developed and presented in the process of teaching and learning enables students to study independently based on their own individual speed of learning. The only need a very limited help or guidance from the facilitator (teacher). Developing modules of teaching-materials is aimed at: 1) easier and more practical presentation of teaching-materials avoiding too much of verbalistic-teaching; 2) saving time and problems of classrooms and visibilities: 3) more independent and individual accebilities.

This development research-study uses the Borg and Gall model based on the reason that the try-out has been restricted on a small scale field try-out, with three times. Revision on the result assuming that a more reliable-result could be achieved. The research study has been constructed into nine levels, i.e: text books analysis, planning of development, product development, expert validation, revisions, small scale tryouts, revisions, field tryout, and revisions of product. The multimedia-module on atmosphere is devided into three parts, i.e : 1) the dynamics of weather elements I, 2) the dynamics of weather elements II, and 3) classification of climates.

The final product of multimedia modules must pass three levels of the validity and feasibility test namely: 1) expert validity, which is done by experts in teaching-materials and teacing-designs; 2) small scale tryout; and 3) field tryout. The small scale tryout and field tryout are intended to find out the students responses to the multimedia modules and also to measure the students ability in reading comprehensions. The students responses is accomplished skill in reading comprehension is measured by the use of a test. The results of the validation process and the tryout are to be used for the basic of product revisions.

During the small scale tryout of the first module it has been recorded 25% increase of grade marks between pretest of posttest; and during the small scale tryout of the second module there was 23,4% increase in the grade marks. The reading comprehension test has given out marks ranging good up to excellent.The field tryout of the first module noted an increase of 25,2% of grade marks between pretest and postest and increase of 22% in the tryout of the second module; while that of the third module has notes 28,4% increase in grade marks. The related reading comprehension grade marks ranged from good to excellent.

The product revisions were conducted in two phases, the fisrt phase revision was conducted based on the scientific opinions of the experts of learning- teaching designs and the atmosphere expert. The second phase revision was conducted based on the data given by the small-scale and field try-outs.

The analysis on the product has found out some weaknesses, i.e : 1) the product can be practicable and effective only if the students have their own computers/laptops, 2) there are some elements or processes written on the teaching materials, but which are not narrated. 3) some films/documentaries do not have the Indonesian-translation, 4) the teaching-materials are not updateable by all teachers. Hence it is advisable that the researcher should further improve the aforementioned-weaknesses that, in turn will bring about highly-qualified multimedia-modules of teaching-materials. The resulting multimedia-modules themselves will be open to multi-years of research and development as to find out the significant influences on the learning-outputs.