DISERTASI dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM, 2012

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

Penjaminan Mutu Internal Perguruan Tinggi (Studi Multikasus di Universitas Gajah Mada, Universitas Islam Indonesia, dan Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana). (Disertasi)

Sutomo Sutomo

Abstrak


ABSTRAK

Sutomo, 2012. Penjaminan Mutu Internal Perguruan Tinggi (Studi Multikasus di Universitas Gajah Mada, Universitas Islam Indonesia, dan Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana). Disertasi, Program Studi Manajemen Pendidikan, Program Pascasarjana Universitas Negeri Malang. Pembimbing (I) Prof. Dr. H. Hendyat Soetopo, M.Pd., (II) Prof. Dr. Willem Mantja, M.Pd., (III) Prof. H. Ahmad Sonhadji Kosim Hasan, M.A., Ph.D.

Kata kunci: penjaminan mutu internal, perguruan tinggi, peningkatan mutu.

Penjaminan mutu yang lahir atas prakarsa sendiri yang didasarkan atas kebutuhan dan keinginan institusi untuk terus meningkatkan mutu berkelanjutan, akan membentuk perguruan tinggi yang sehat dan berkualitas. Setiap perguruan tinggi diharapkan bersikap responsif terhadap kebutuhan stakeholders dan mampu membudayakan penjaminan mutu internal dan meningkatkan mutu secara berkelanjutan, sehingga stakeholders memperoleh kepuasan sebagaimana dicirikan oleh institusi perguruan tinggi yang berkualitas.

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan proses penjaminan mutu internal yang dilakukan oleh perguruan tinggi untuk meningkatkan mutu berkelanjutan melalui model satu siklus SPM-PT yang meliputi (1) penetapan standar, (2) pelaksanaan, (3) monitoring, (4) evaluasi diri, (5) audit mutu internal, (6) rumusan koreksi, dan (7) peningkatan mutu.

Untuk mencapai tujuan tersebut dilakukan penelitian menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif dengan rancangan multikasus pada tiga perguruan tinggi nasional Indonesia yang telah melakukan sistem penjaminan mutu internal dengan baik. Ketiga perguruan tinggi tersebut meliputi Universitas Gajah Mada (UGM), Universitas Islam Indonesia (UII), dan Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana (UKSW). Data dikumpulkan dengan menggunakan wawancara mendalam, observasi, dan studi dokumentasi. Data penelitian diperiksa kebenaran, kecocokan, dan kehandalannya melalui proses triangulasi, yang dalam penelitian ini digunakan triangulasi metode dan sumber.

Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pertama, (1) penetapan standar meliputi: (1) standar yang dibutuhkan untuk melakukan penjaminan mutu internal guna peningkatan mutu berkelanjutan meliputi standar yang dibutuhkan pada tingkat universitas meliputi visi, misi, kebijakan akademik, standar akademik, peraturan akademik, dan manual mutu akademik. Demikian pula untuk tingkat fakultas juga diperlukan standar akademik, peraturan akademik, dan manual mutu akademik. Sedangkan di tingkat jurusan/bagian/program studi, tersedianya kompetensi lulusan, spesifikasi program studi, manual prosedur, dan instruksi kerja serta dokumen pendukung; Acuan yang digunakan dalam penetapan standar meliputi: (a) Visi dan Misi Universitas, (b) Undang-undang Sisdiknas, (c) Standar Nasional Pendidikan, (d) Undang-Undang Guru dan Dosen, (e) Butir-butir Mutu dalam Pedoman Penjaminan Mutu Dikti, f) Badan Akreditasi Nasional Perguruan Tinggi, g) AUNQA; (3) Penetapan standar melibatkan berbagai pihak antara lain, majelis wali amanah, senat akademik, rektor/wakil rektor, dekan/wakil dekan, prodi, sivitas akademika, organisasi penjaminan mutu, stakeholders, tokoh masyarakat, asosiasi profesi, dan alumni. (4) penyusunan kompetensi lulusan dilakukan dengan hati-hati, karena hasil dari kompetensi lulusan itu sendiri tidak hanya berdampak terhadap penyusunan kurikulum, tetapi juga menunjukkan kualitas atau mutu lulusan.

Kedua, pelaksanaan standar meliputi; (1) sebelum memasuki tahap implementasi, terlebih dahulu dilakukan sosialisasi dengan melibatkan para pemangku kepentingan; (2) strategi yang digunakan meliputi internalisasi budaya mutu dan pemberian rewards and punishments; (3) penopang keberhasilan penjaminan mutu internal adalah komitmen yang tinggi para pimpinan, ketersediaan sumberdaya manusia yang mampu dan mau melaksanakan sistem tersebut serta didukung oleh sistem teknologi informasi yang memadai; (4) organisasi penjaminan mutu memiliki peran penting dalam pelaksanaan penjaminan mutu terutama dalam upaya pengembangan instrumen untuk peningkatan mutu berkelanjutan.

Ketiga, monitoring meliputi (1) dilakukan secara on going atau parallel dengan tahap pelaksanaan; (2) dilakukan oleh pimpinan, pengurus program studi, bagian pengajaran, dan mahasiswa; (3) dilakukan secara langsung maupun tidak langsung yaitu dengan menggunakan perangkat sistem teknologi informasi. dan (4) memberikan dampak postitif terhadap meningkatnya kinerja akademik.

Keempat, evaluasi diri, (1) dilakukan secara rutin sekali dalam setahun; (2) dilakukan dengan mengacu standar BAN PT; (3) pihak yang terlibat dalam evaluasi diri adalah tim yang terdiri atas pengurus jurusan/program studi, dosen dan staf administrasi; (4) kegiatan yang dilakukan diawali dengan pembentukan taskforce, kemudian tim melakukan pengumpulan data dan analisis data.

Kelima, audit mutu; (1) dilakukan secara periodik sekali dalam setahun; (2) melibatkan para auditor independen; (3) sebelum melakukan tugas audit, auditor mengikuti penyegaran, dalam melakukan audit para auditor bertindak secara profesional dan independen serta hasil audit dijadikan sebagai bahan untuk peningkatan mutu berkelanjutan.

Keenam, tindakan koreksi; (1) dilakukan atas dasar temuan audit; (2) yang melakukan adalah teraudit setelah memperoleh perintah dari pimpinan; (3) kegiatan yang dilakukan adalah membuat rencana perbaikan, melaksanakan perbaikan, dan pencegahan agar temuan yang sama tidak terulang lagi.

Ketujuh, peningkatan mutu; (1) dilakukan melalui rapat tinjauan manajemen; (2) pihak yang terlibat adalah pimpinan terkait sesuai dengan tingkatan; (3) melakukan benchmarking pada perguruan tinggi lain yang lebih unggul.

Berdasarkan temuan penelitian disarankan agar (1) pimpinan perguruan tinggi dapat meningkatkan sistem reward and punishment, melakukan gerakan budaya mutu, dan mengkaji standar mutu secara berkala, (2) Yayasan/Asosiasi Perguruan Tinggi Swasta Indonesia (APTISI) dapat mendorong dan memfasilitasi pelaksanaan penjaminan mutu internal dengan menyediakan pembiayaan yang memadai, (3) Dikti, diharapkan memberi insentif kepada perguruan tinggi yang telah melakukan penjaminan mutu internal dengan baik dan mempublikasikannya secara luas kepada masyarakat melalui media cetak dan secara online, serta (4) peneliti lain yang berminat mengkaji bidang ini dapat memfokuskan masalah lain, misalnya budaya mutu atau dampak penerapan penjaminan mutu internal terhadap biaya mutu.


ABSTRACT

Sutomo, 2012. The Internal Quality Assurance of Higher Education (Multi cases Studies in Gajah Mada University, Islamic University of Indonesia, and Satya Wacana Christian University). Dissertation, Education Management Program, Post Graduate Program State University of Malang, Advisor (I) Prof. Dr. H. Hendyat Soetopo, M.Pd., (II) Prof. Dr. Willem Mantja, M.Pd., (III) Prof. H. Ahmad Sonhadji Kosim Hasan, M.A., Ph.D.

Key words: internal quality assurance, higher education, quality improvement.

Quality assurance who was born on the initiative of their own based on institutional needs and desires to continue to improve the quality of sustained, will form the College healthy and of good quality. Each College is expected to be responsive to the needs of stakeholders and able to cultivate and improve internal quality assurance quality on an ongoing basis, so that stakeholders gain satisfaction as characterized by a qualified institution of higher education.

This research has the aims to describe the process of internal quality assurance done by the higher education to improve successive quality through one cycle model called SPM-PT that covers (1) standard determination, (2) performing, (3) monitoring, (4) self-evaluation, (5) internal quality audit, (6) correction formula, and (7) quality improvement.

In order to reach those aims, the research is undergone by using qualitative approach with multi cases design in three national higher education in Indonesia that have already done the system of internal quality assurance well. The three national higher education are Gajah Mada University (UGM), Islamic University of Indonesia (UII), and Satya Wacana Christian University (UKSW). The data are collected by using deep interview, observation, and documentation study. The truth, the compatibility, and the mainstay of the research data are checked through triangulation process in which in this research the method triangulation and source triangulation are used.

The results showed that the first, standard-setting include: (1) the standards required to perform internal quality assurance in order to increase the quality of ongoing standards needed in covering university level include vision, mission, academic policies, academic standards, academic regulations, and academic quality manual. Similarly to the faculty level also required academic standards, academic regulations, and academic quality manual. Meanwhile at the level of departments/sections/course of study, the availability of competency graduates, specifications of study program, manual procedures, and work instructions as well as supporting documents; (2) referring to the standard determine by (a) vision and mission of the university, (b) the law of national education, (c) the national standard of education, (d) the law of teachers and lecturers, (e) quality pointers in quality assurance guidelines of Higher Education, (f) National Accreditation Board, (g) AUNQA; (3) involving various parties, among other things, the Senate, Rector/Vice-Chancellor, Dean/Vice Dean, study program/department, civitas academica (lecturers and university students), quality assurance organizations, stakeholders, community leaders, alumni association, and the profession association; (4) the arrangement of graduate competency carried out carefully, because the results of the competency graduates itself not only have an impact on the preparation of the curriculum, but also indicate the quality or the quality of graduates.

Secondly, the implementation of the standard include; (1) before entering the stage of implementation, first with the socialization involving stakeholders; (2) the strategies used include the internalization of cultural quality and the awarding of reward and punishment; (3) internal quality guarantee success of the cantilever is a commitment that the leadership of the high availability of human resources, able and willing to carry out the system and supported by adequate information technology systems; (4) quality assurance organizations have an important role in the implementation of quality assurance especially in an effort to increase the quality of instrument development sustainable,

Thirdly, monitoring includes; (1) done in parallel with ongoing or the implementation stage; (2) conducted by the leaders, management courses or study program administrator, the administrative staff, and students; (3) conducted directly or indirectly by use of information technology systems. (4) give positive effects to increased academic performance.

Fourth, self-evaluation; (1) carried out routinely or periodically once a year; (2) done with reference to a standard of National Accreditation Board of Higher Education; (3) the parties involved in the self-evaluation is a team consisting of a study program administrator, faculty and administrative staff; (4) activities that begin with the creation of the taskforce, then the team doing data collection and data analysis.

Fifth, the quality audit (1) done periodically once a year; (2) involving the independent auditor; (3) before performing the audit the auditor following refresher, in doing the audit the auditor act professionally and independent audit results and serve as material for sustainable quality improvement.

Sixth, the correction action; (1) was carried out on the basis of audit findings; (2) who did the act of correction formula is the auditee after getting the task from leader; (3) activities that are making plans, implement improvements, repair and prevention so that the same findings are not repeated again.

The seventh, (1) the quality improvement is done through management review meeting; (2) the parties involved are related according to the level of leadership; (3) perform benchmarking on other excellent colleges.

Based on the findings of the study recommended that (1) the Chairman of the College can apply the reward and punishment system, do quality, cultural movements and periodically examine the quality standards, (2) Foundation/ Association of Private Higher Education can encourage and facilitate the implementation of internal quality assurance by providing adequate financing, (3) DGHE, is expected to give an incentive to the College who have done well internal quality assurance and publish it widely to the public through print and online, and (4) other interested researchers who examine this field can focus on other issues, such as the impact of the application of cultural quality or quality assurance internal towards the cost of quality.