DISERTASI dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM, 2012

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

Pengembangan Model Pembelajaran Kooperatif Jigsaw Modifikasi dari Aronson dan Slavin Serta Pengaruhnya Terhadap Keterampilan Metakognisi dan Hasil Belajar Biologi Siswa Berkemampuan Akademik Berbeda di SMA Kota Denpasar. (Disertasi)

Cornelius Sri Murdo Yuwono

Abstrak


ABSTRAK

Yuwono, Cornelius Sri Murdo. 2012. Pengembangan Model Pembelajaran Kooperatif Jigsaw Modifikasi dari Aronson dan Slavin Serta Pengaruhnya Terhadap Keterampilan Metakognisi dan Hasil Belajar Biologi Siswa Berkemampuan Akademik Berbeda di SMA Kota Denpasar. Disertasi, Program Studi Pendidikan Biologi, Program Pascasarjana, Universitas Negeri Malang. Pembimbing: (I) Prof.Dra. Herawati Susilo,M.Sc.,Ph.D., (II) Prof. Dr. Hj. Mimien Henie Irawati,MS., (III) Dr. Endang Suarsini,M,Ked.

Kata kunci: Jigsaw Modifikasi, keterampilan metakognisi, hasil belajar biologi.

Pelajaran Biologi berupaya membekali siswa dengan berbagai kemampuan tentang cara "mengetahui" berupa aspek produk, dan cara "mengerjakan" berupa aspek proses dalam kehidupan sehari-hari yang menuntut siswa menjadi pebelajar mandiri (Self-regulated learner). Aspek penting yang kurang mendapatkan perhatian adalah keterampilan metakognisi, dan bagaimana mensejajarkan siswa berkemampuan akademik bawah (AB) dengan siswa berkemampuan akademik atas (AA). Menurut Vygotsky, siswa AA dan AB dapat sejajar prestasi belajarnya, jika memperoleh scaffolding dari guru dan teman sebayanya. Hasil survei 97,50% pembelajaran berpusat pada guru, dan 100% tidak pernah memberdayakan keterampilan metakognisi siswa, disebabkan guru tidak mempunyai pemahaman keterampilan metakognisi. Model pembelajaran yang dapat meningkatkan keterampilan metakognisi dan hasil belajar adalah model pembelajaran kooperatif Jigsaw.

Tujuan penelitian dan pengembangan adalah: (1) Mendeskripsikan gambar an pembelajaran biologi SMA di kota Denpasar, (2) Mengembangkan perangkat pembelajaran biologi berupa silabus, RPP, LKS, dan assesmen dengan model pembelajaran kooperatif Jigsaw Modifikasi dari Aronson dan Slavin yang dikembangkan melalui kegiatan Lesson Study, (3) Menguji keterampilan metakognisi dan hasil belajar kognitif biologi terhadap model pembelajaran, (4) Menguji keterampilan metakognisi dan hasil belajar kognitif biologi antara siswa berkemampuan akademik berbeda terhadap model pembelajaran, dan (5) Menguji keterampilan metakognisi dan hasil belajar kognitif biologi terhadap interaksi model pembelajaran dan kemampuan akademik.

Prosedur pengembangan merujuk pada model 4-P (Pendefinisian, Perancangan, Pengembangan, dan Penyebaran (Define, Design, Develop, dan Desseminate) dari Thiagarajan. Tahap pendefinisian dilakukan dengan penelitian survei. Tahap perancangan menghasilkan produk Silabus, RPP, LKS, dan Assesmen, Tahap pengembangan dilaksanakan melalui Workshop Lesson Study (LS) guru biologi SMA kota Denpasar dan peer teaching dalam tahap Plan, Do, dan See. Tahap penyebaran melalui uji coba kelas sebenarnya diawali dengan LS, dan diteruskan dalam penelitian eksperimen.

Rancangan eksperimen menggunakan kuasi eksperimen pretes-postes non equivalent control group design. Variabel bebas adalah model pembelajaran dan kemampuan akademik. Variabel terikat keterampilan metakognisi dan hasil belajar kognitif. Populasi penelitian adalah seluruh siswa kelas XI IPA SMA Negeri dan Swasta di kota Denpasar. Penarikan sampel menggunakan Stratifield random sampling untuk menetapkan delapan sampel sekolah. Setiap sampel sekolah diambil satu sampel kelas secara acak. Sampel penelitian 190 siswa masing-masing terdiri dari 95 siswa AA dan AB. Keterampilan metakognisi diukur berdasar rubrik yang terintegrasi dengan soal uraian, kesadaran metakognisi menggunakan MAI (Metacognitive Awareness Inventory), dan hasil belajar kognitif dengan soal tes uraian diukur dengan skala Hart. Instrumen terlebih dahulu diuji validitas, reliabilitas, tingkat kesukaran, dan daya beda. Data diambil saat pretes dan postes. Analisis data menggunakan analisis deskriptif dan anakova dilanjutkan uji Least Significance Different. Sebelum uji anakova, dilakukan uji asumsi normalitas dan homogenitas varians, menggunakan uji One-Sample Kolmogorov Smirnov Test.dan uji Levene's Test. Semua penghitungan menggunakan program SPSS versi 16,0 pada taraf signifikansi 0,05 (p < 0,05).

Hasil pengembangan perangkat pembelajaran melalui LS menunjukkan, (1) Pembelajaran biologi di SMA Kota Denpasar dididik oleh guru biologi SMA sesuai Standar Nasional Pendidikan, (2) Produk perangkat pembelajaran berupa Silabus, RPP, LKS, dan assesmen andal dalam meningkatkan keterampilan metakognisi dan hasil belajar kognitif.

Hasil LS menunjukkan, (1) Keterampilan metakognisi berdasar rubrik pada model pembelajaran terjadi peningkatan kategori kualitatif at risk-not really menjadi kategori developing-ok., (2) Hasil belajar kognitif pada model pembe-lajaran terjadi peningkatan kategori kualitatif kurang (0-39) menjadi kategori baik (60-79).

Hasil eksperimen sebagai berikut, (1) Model pembelajaran kooperatif Jigsaw Modifikasi dan Jigsaw II Slavin berpengaruh setara dalam meningkatkan keterampilan metakognisi berdasar rubrik, (2). Model pembelajaran tidak berpengaruh terhadap kesadaran metakognisi diukur menggunakan MAI. (3) Model pembelajaran kooperatif Jigsaw Modifikasi, Jigsaw Asli Aronson, Jigsaw II Slavin berpengaruh setara dalam meningkatkan hasil belajar kogitif (4) Terdapat pengaruh keterampilan metakognisi berdasar rubrik, kesadaran metakognisi menggunakan MAI, dan hasil belajar kognitif pada kemampuan AA dan AB, dan (5) Terdapat pengaruh interaksi model pembelajaran dengan kemampuan akademik terhadap keterampilan metakognisi berdasar rubrik, kesadaran metakognisi diukur menggunakan MAI, dan hasil belajar kognitif

Model pembelajaran kooperatif Jigsaw Modifikasi dan Jigsaw Asli Aronson berpotensi setara dalam meningkatkan keterampilan metakognisi berdasar rubrik. pada kemampuan akademik bawah (AB). Model pembelajaran cenderung mampu meningkatkan kesadaran metakognisi menggunakan MAI pada kemampuan akademik atas (AA). Model pembelajaran kooperatif Jigsaw Modifi-kasi, Jigsaw Asli Aronson, mampu mengangkat hasil belajar kognitif yang dimiliki siswa berkemampuan AB.

Sebaiknya guru mencoba mengimplementasikan model pembelajaran kooperatif Jigsaw Modifikasi bagi siswa berkemampuan AB dalam meningkatkan keterampilan metakognisi dan hasil belajar kognitif siswa. Pembentukan kelas dengan kemampuan akademik homogen perlu dipertimbangkan, karena menyebabkan tidak efektifnya proses scaffolding.

ABSTRACT

Yuwono, Cornelius Sri Murdo. 2012. The Development of Cooperative Learning Model Based on the Modified Slavin and Aronson's Jigsaw and Its Effect on the Metacognitive Skill and Learning Achievement on Biology of Students with Different Academic Abilities at Senior High Schools in Denpasar City. Dissertation, Biology Education Study Program, Graduate Program, State University of Malang. Advisors: (I) Prof. Dra. Herawati Susilo, M.Sc., Ph.D., (II) Prof. Dr. Hj. Mimien Henie Irawati, MS., (III) Dr. Endang Suarsini, M,Ked.

Key words: modified Jigsaw, metacognitive skill, biology learning achievement

Biology instructions attempt to equip students with various skills on how ‘to know' which deals with the aspect of product and how ‘to do' which deals with the aspect of process of everyday life, which demand the students to become self-regulated learners. However, two important aspects, yet obtaining little attention, are metacognitive skill and how to equate students with low academic ability (AB) with those with high academic ability (AA). According to Vygotsky, AA students and AB students could be equal in their learning achievement if they obtain scaffolding from their teachers and peers. The survey results indicated that 97.50% of the instructions were teacher-centered, and 100% of the instructions did not ever empower the students' metacognitive skill, which was due to the teachers having no knowledge on metacognitive skill. The learning model that can enhance metacognitive skill and learning achievement is cooperative learning of Jigsaw type.

The current research and development study was aimed at: (1) describing the biology instructions at senior high schools (SHSs) in Denpasar city, (2) developing biology learning materials including syllabuses, lesson plans, students' worksheets, and assessment tools using cooperative learning model based on the modified Aronson and Slavin's Jigsaw through lesson study activities, (3) testing metacognitive skill and cognitive learning achievement on biology toward the learning model, (4) testing metacognitive skill and cognitive learning achievement on biology between students with different academic abilities toward learning models, and (5) testing metacognitive skill and cognitive learning achievement on biology toward the interaction between learning model and academic ability.

The procedure of the learning materials development referred to Thiagarajan's 4-D model (Define, Design, Develop, dan Desseminate). The define phase was done through survey research. The design phase produced such products as syllabuses, lesson plans, students' worksheets, and assessment tools. The develop phase was done through workshop lesson study (LS) to biology teachers of SHSs of Denpasar city and peer teaching through plan, do, and see steps. The disseminate phase, finally, was done through the actual try out in the class started with LS, and this was followed by the experimental research.

The experimental research design used was quasi experiment with pretest-postest non-equivalent control group design. The dependent variables were learning model and academic ability, while the independent variables were metacognitive skill and cognitive learning achievement. Research population was all class XI science students of all public and private SHSs in Denpasar city. The sample was selected using stratified random sampling to determine 8 schools, and from each of these schools, one class was taken randomly. The sample was 190 students in total, consisting of 95 AA students and 95 AB students. Metacognitive skill was measured using a rubric integrated with essay questions, metacognitive awareness was measured using Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI), and cognitive learning achievement using an essay test with Hart scale. The instruments were validated through validity test, reliability test, difficulty index, and discrepancy index. Data were gathered during pretest and post-test. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ancova followed by Least Square Difference test. Prior to the analysis, normality and homogeinity tests were done using One-Sample Kolmogorov Smirnov Test and Levene's Test. The data analysis was performed using SPSS 16 at the significance level of .05 (p < .05).

The results of the learning materials development through LS showed that: (1) biology instructions at SHSs in Denpasar city were carried out by the SHS biology teachers based on the Standard of National Education, (2) products of the learning materials were in the forms of syllabuses, lesson plans, students' worksheets, and assessment tools reliable in improving metacognitive skill and cognitive learning achievement.

The LS results showed that: (1) the metacognitive skill based on the rubric on the learning model improved from the qualitative category of at risk-not really to the category of developing-ok., (2) the cognitive learning achievement on the learning model improved from the qualitative category of insufficient (0-39) to the category of good (60-79).

The experiment results revealed that: (1) cooperative learning model of modified Jigsaw type and that of Slavin's Jigsaw II had an equal effect in improving metacognitive skill based on the rubric, (2) learning models did not have an effect on metacognitive awareness measured using MAI, (3) cooperative learning model of modified Jigsaw type, of originally Aronson's Jigsaw, and of Slavin's Jigsaw II had an equal effect in improving cognitive learning achievement, (4) there was an effect of metacognitive skill based on the rubric, metacognitive awareness measured using MAI, and cognitive learning achievement on both the AA and BB ability, and (5) there was an interaction effect between learning model and academic ability toward metacognitive skill based on the rubric, metacognitive awareness measured using MAI, and cognitive learning achievement.

Learning model of modified Jigsaw type and that of originally Aronson's Jigsaw had equal potential in improving the metacognitive skill based on the rubric on the AB students. Learning models tended to be able to improve metacognitive awareness using MAI on the AA ability type. Cooperative learning model of modified Jigsaw type and that of originally Aronson's Jigsaw could improve the cognitive learning achievement of the AB students.

It is suggested that biology teachers try to implement cooperative learning model of modification Jigsaw type for AB students in improving their metacognitive skill and cognitive learning achievement. Formation of classes with homogeneous academic ability is worth considering since this resulted in an ineffective process of scaffolding.