DISERTASI dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM, 2012

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engembangan Perangkat Pembelajaran Inkuiri melalui Kegiatan Lesson Study dan Pengaruh Implementasinya terhadap Hasil Belajar IPA Biologi dan Keterampilan Berpikir Kritis Siswa Berkemampuan Akademik Berbeda di SMP Negeri Kota Mataram

Agus Ramdani

Abstrak


ABSTRAK

Ramdani, Agus. 2012. Pengembangan Perangkat Pembelajaran Inkuiri melalui Kegiatan Lesson Study dan Pengaruh Implementasinya terhadap Hasil Belajar IPA Biologi dan Keterampilan Berpikir Kritis Siswa Berkemampuan Akademik Berbeda di SMP Negeri Kota Mataram. Disertasi, Program Studi Pendidikan Biologi, Program Pascasarjana, Universitas Negeri Malang. Pembimbing: (I) Prof. Dra. Herawati Susilo, M.Sc., Ph.D., (II) Prof. Dr. H. Muslimin Ibrahim, M.Pd., dan (III) Dr. Ibrohim, M.Si.

Kata kunci: perangkat pembelajaran inkuiri, lesson study, hasil belajar IPA Biologi, keterampilan berpikir kritis, kemampuan akademik.

Penelitian ini dilatarbelakangi oleh: (1) adanya tantangan dalam mempersiapkan peserta didik berkualitas dengan karakteristik di antaranya memiliki kecakapan berpikir kritis; (2) adanya perubahan paradigma pendidikan yang diarahkan pada pengembangan kompetensi siswa dalam melakukan tugas-tugas akademik berdasarkan standar tertentu; (3) adanya reorientasi tujuan pelajaran IPA di SMP yang menekankan pada inkuiri ilmiah untuk menumbuhkan kemampuan berpikir, bersikap, dan bertindak ilmiah serta berkomunikasi; (4) adanya gambaran tentang upaya pemberdayaan keterampilan berpikir kritis melalui pembelajaran IPA Biologi belum dilakukan secara terencana (by design) di sekolah; (5) adanya berbagai upaya untuk meningkatkan kemampuan guru yang di antaranya melalui kegiatan lesson study; (6) adanya fakta bahwa peserta didik telah dikelompokkan atau mengelompok secara alami berdasarkan kemampuan akademik; dan (7) perlunya menemukan strategi pembelajaran yang sesuai pada tingkat kemampuan akademik yang berbeda. Bertitik tolak dari latar belakang tersebut dirumuskan masalah utama penelitian ini, yaitu: (1) bagaimana pola pengembangan perangkat pembelajaran inkuiri melalui kegiatan lesson study? (2) adakah perbedaan hasil belajar IPA Biologi dan keterampilan berpikir kritis antara siswa yang mengikuti pembelajaran dengan strategi inkuiri level 1, inkuiri level 2, inkuiri level 3 dan strategi konvensional? (3) adakah perbedaan hasil belajar IPA Biologi dan keterampilan berpikir kritis antara siswa berkemampuan akademik atas dan bawah setelah mengikuti pembelajaran dengan strategi inkuiri level 1, level 2, level 3, dan strategi konvensional? (4) adakah pengaruh interaksi antara strategi pembelajaran (inkuiri level 1, inkuiri level 2, inkuiri level 3, dan konvensional) dan kemampuan akademik siswa (atas dan bawah) terhadap hasil belajar IPA Biologi dan keterampilan berpikir kritis siswa?

Penelitian dilakukan dalam dua tahapan yakni: (1) penelitian pengembangan untuk menghasilkan perangkat pembelajaran inkuiri; dan (2) penelitian eksperimen untuk mengungkap ada tidaknya pengaruh variabel bebas (strategi pembelajaran) dan variabel moderator (kemampuan akademik siswa) terhadap variabel terikat (hasil belajar IPA Biologi dan keterampilan berpikir kritis siswa). Penelitian pengembangan perangkat pembelajaran mengacu pada prosedur model pengembangan 4-D (Define, Design, Develop, dan Disseminate) dengan mengintegrasikan kegiatan lesson study di dalam tahapannya. Pada tahapan pengembangan (develop) dari prosedur model pengembangan 4-D, dilakukan kegiatan lesson study yang diawali dengan tahapan plan (perencanaan), yaitu peneliti bersama dengan guru mitra secara kolaboratif mengembangkan perangkat pembelajaran. Selanjutnya, tahapan do (pelaksanaan) dan see (refleksi) dilaksanakan di kelas-kelas setelah keseluruhan perangkat pembelajaran tersedia. Dalam penelitian ini, tahapan ke-empat dari prosedur model pengembangan 4-D (tahap disseminate) belum dapat dilaksanakan. Penelitian eksperimen dilakukan pada semester gasal tahun ajaran 2011/2012. Populasi penelitian adalah seluruh siswa kelas VIII pada 23 SMP N di Kota Mataram. Teknik yang digunakan dalam penarikan sampel penelitian adalah stratified random sampling. Penarikan sampel penelitian diawali dengan menentukan kriteria sekolah berdasarkan nilai UASBN input siswa pada saat jenjang SD. Pada masing-masing kelas yang telah terpilih secara random (8 kelas), selanjutnya ditentukan masing-masing 25 siswa berkemampuan akademik atas atau bawah berdasarkan nilai UASBN yang dimilikinya. Jumlah sampel secara keseluruhan dalam penelitian ini adalah 200 orang siswa. Empat macam perlakuan yang diberikan adalah implementasi strategi pembelajaran inkuiri level 1, level 2, level 3, dan konvensional pada masing-masing kelas. Data dianalisis dengan Anakova pada taraf signifikansi 5%.

Dari penelitian pengembangan diperoleh pengalaman berharga dalam mengembangkan perangkat pembelajaran dengan mengintegrasikan kegiatan lesson study, yaitu dihasilkannya perangkat pembelajaran yang optimal dalam membelajarkan siswa berinkuiri, meningkatnya motivasi guru dalam melakukan pembelajaran, dan pada akhirnya ditemukan adanya peningkatan hasil belajar dan keterampilan berpikir kritis siswa setelah proses pembelajaran. Dari penelitian eksperimen diperoleh hasil bahwa: (1) ada perbedaan hasil belajar IPA Biologi dan keterampilan berpikir kritis antara siswa yang mengikuti pembelajaran dengan strategi inkuiri level 1, inkuiri level 2, inkuiri level 3 dan strategi konvensional, (2) ada perbedaan hasil belajar IPA Biologi dan keterampilan berpikir kritis antara siswa berkemampuan akademik atas dan bawah setelah mengikuti pembelajaran dengan strategi inkuiri level 1, level 2, level 3, dan strategi konvensional, dan (3) ada pengaruh interaksi antara strategi pembelajaran dan kemampuan akademik siswa terhadap hasil belajar IPA Biologi dan keterampilan berpikir kritis siswa. Kesimpulan yang dapat diambil dari hasil penelitian ini adalah perangkat pembelajaran inkuiri dalam berbagai level dapat diterapkan dalam pembelajaran IPA Biologi SMP dan berpotensi untuk meningkatkan hasil belajar dan keterampilan berpikir kritis siswa. Pemilihan level tertentu dalam strategi pembelajaran inkuiri hendaknya memperhatikan kondisi kemampuan akademik siswa serta sarana pendukung yang tersedia. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian ini maka disarankan kepada guru-guru IPA Biologi SMP di kota Mataram khususnya, untuk selalu berusaha semaksimal mungkin menerapkan strategi pembelajaran ini sehingga hasil belajar dan keterampilan berpikir kritis siswa dapat terus ditingkatkan. Untuk menghasilkan perangkat pembelajaran yang bermutu dan dapat diimplementasikan dengan baik di kelas dipandang perlu ada proses pengkondisian dan pembiasaan kepada guru. Kegiatan lesson study yang dilakukan secara kolaboratif dapat digunakan sebagai salah satu cara yang efektif untuk memenuhi proses dimaksud.

ABSTRACT

Ramdani, Agus. 2012. The Development of Inquiry-Based Learning Material through Lesson Study Activities and The Effect of Its Implementation on Learning Achievement of Natural Science Biology and Critical Thinking Skills of Students with Different Academic Abilities on Junior High Schools in Mataram. Dissertation, Biology Education Study Program, Postgaraduate Program, State University of Malang. Advisors: (I) Prof. Dra. Herawati Susilo, M.Sc., Ph.D., (II) Prof. Dr. H. Muslimin Ibrahim, M.Pd., and (III) Dr. Ibrohim, M.Si.

Key words: inquiry-based learning material, lesson study, learning achievement of Natural Science Biology, critical thinking skills, academic abilities.

The present study was carried out due to the following background: (1) a challenge in current educational world, that is, preparing high quality students, one characteristic of whom, among other, is having critical thinking ability; (2) change of educational paradigm directed toward the development of learners' competency in doing academic tasks based on certain standards; (3) reorientation of the objectives of Natural Sciences in junior high school emphasizing on scientific inquiry to enhance skills of thinking, behaving and acting scientifically, as well as communication ability; (4) the result of the preliminary survey indicating that the effort to empower thinking skills through Natural Science Biology teaching has not, by design, been carried out in schools; (5) a number of efforts to improve teachers' professionalism, for instance, through lesson study; (6) the result of the preliminary study showing that the students have been grouped or naturally grouped based on their academic ability; and (7) the need of discovering teaching strategies suitable with students' different academic abilities. Accordingly, the primary research problems were as follows: (1) how is the development pattern of inquiry-based learning material through lesson study activities? (2) is there any difference of learning achievement of Natural Science Biology and critical thinking skills between students taught with inquiry strategies of level 1, level 2 and level 3 and those taught under conventional strategies? (3) is there any difference of learning achievement of Natural Science Biology and critical thinking skills between high and low academic ability students? (4) is there any effect of interaction between teaching strategies and students' academic ability toward learning achievement of natural Science Biology and critical thinking skills?

The present study has been conducted in two periods: (1) developmental research in order to produce inquiry-based learning materials; and (2) experimental research aimed at finding out the effect of the independent variables (learning strategies) and moderator variables (students' academic ability) on the dependent variables (students' learning achievement of Natural Science Biology and critical thinking skills). The developmental research was based on 4-D developmental model procedures (Define, Design, Develop, and Disseminate) by integrating lesson study activities in the stages of the developmental model implementation. At the stage of develop, lesson study was commenced, in which it was started with the first phase, plan, that is, the researcher and teacher collaborator developed inquiry-based learning material. The next phases, do (implementation) and see (reflection) were conducted in the classroom after the inquiry-based learning material was created. The last stage in the 4-D developmental model procedures was not yet conducted. The experimental study was carried out in the odd semester of the academic year 2011/2012. The population of the study was all eighth graders in 23 junior high schools in Mataram. The sampling technique employed was stratified random sampling. The sample selection was carried out, firstly, by determining the criteria for selecting sample schools, which were based on the National Examination Scores (UASBN) at the elementary school education of the student input. Based on the criteria, 8 schools were selected, and from each of the schools, one class was randomly determined. From each of the eight class, 25 students of high academic ability and 25 students of low academic ability based on their UASBN scores were chosen as the sample of the study. The member of the sample was 200 in total. Four treatments in the study included the implementation of inquiry-based learning material of level 1, level 2, level 3 and conventional teaching material at each class. The data were analyzed using ANCOVA at significance level of .05.

The developmental research provides invaluable experience dealing with learning material development through lesson study, that is, the production of learning material which was optimal in making the students learn by inquiring, increasing the teachers' motivation to conduct the instruction, and eventually increasing the students' learning achievement and critical thinking ability after the treatment. The experiment showed that: (1) there was a difference in learning achievement of Natural Science Biology and critical thinking skills between students taught with inquiry strategies of level 1, level 2 and level 3 and those taught using conventional strategy; (2) there was a difference in learning achievement of Natural Science Biology and critical thinking skills between the students of high level of academic ability and those of low academic ability level; and (3) there was an interaction effect between learning strategies and students' academic ability toward their achievement of Natural Science Biology and critical thinking skills. In summary, inquiry-based learning material can be applied at various levels and potentially improve learners' learning achievement and critical thinking skills. The choice of certain level of inquiry teaching should consider learners' entry academic ability and supporting facilities. Based on the present study, it is suggested that Natural Science Biology teachers of junior high schools in Mataram try hard to apply this learning strategy in order that students' learning achievement and critical thinking skills can be improved. To create quality learning material which could be effectively applied in classroom requires conditioning process and habituation on the part of the teachers. Lesson study activities could be one of the effective methods to suit such a process.