DISERTASI dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM, 2012

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

Manajemen Kurikulum Sekolah Standar Internasional berbasis Integrasi Standar Nasional dan Cambridge International Primary Programme. (Disertasi)

Suprihadi Saputro

Abstrak


Saputro, Suprihadi, 2012. Manajemen Kurikulum Sekolah Standar Internasional berbasis Integrasi Standar Nasional dan Cambridge International Primary Programme. Disertasi, Program Studi Manajemen Pendidikan, Program Pascasarjana Universitas Negeri Malang. Pembimbing (I) Prof. Dr. H. Ibrahim Bafadal, M.Pd, (II) Prof. Dr. H. Hendyat Soetopo, M.Pd, (III) Prof. H. Sonhadji K.H. M.A.,Ph.D.

Katakunci: manajemen kurikulum sekolah, standar internasional, berbasis integrasi standar nasional dan Cambridge International Primary Programme

Badan Pengembangan Laboratorium Pendidikan Universitas Negeri Malang, melalui Pendidikan Dasar Laboratorium Universitas Negeri Malang, melakukan kemitraan dengan Cambridge International Examination dalam penyelenggaraan program pendidikan dasar standar internasional. Dalam rangka memotivasi dan menumbuhkan semangat inovasi pendidikan di sekolah-sekolah nasional, maka Pendidikan Dasar Laboratorium Universitas Negeri Malang, mendiseminasikan kurikulum standar internasional dan menjalin kemitraan dengan sejumlah sekolah dasar nasional, dalam implementasi kurikulum sekolah standar internasional berbasisintegrasistandar nasional dan Cambridge International Primary Programme di sekolah mitra.

Proses kurikulum sekolah standar internasional berbasis integrasi standar nasional dan CIPP, di sekolah mitra menunjukkan karakteristik fenomenal berikut: (1) melakukan perencanaan untuk menentukan desain kurikulumberdasar atas framework kurikulum CIPP yang di integrasikan dengan kurikulum standar nasional, (2) disetiap sekolah menetapkan perubahan kebijakan proses kurikulum,perubahan kebijakan rekrutmen guru dan manajemen infra struktur (3) terdapat perubahan kebijakan substansial dalamimplementasi kurikulum sekolah, menyangkut pengalokasian waktu pertemuan, struktur bahan, kegiatan dan infrastruktur dalam pelaksanaan program dan sistem evaluasi program (a) perumusan kegiatan berdasar pemetaan indikator kompetensi, (b) penilaian pembelajaran didesain secara terintegrasi dengan proses pembelajaran, (c) setiap kelas dipandu dua orang guru, (d) bahan belajar anak berupa worksheet yang berisi panduan kegiatan, bahan belajar, dan tugas-tugas belajar, (e) mengintegrasikan bahan belajar dengan multi media dan jaringan online, (f) interaksi guru-murid menggunakan bahasa internasional, (g) setiap anak memiliki keberagaman waktu dalam menuntaskan tugas belajarnya. Fenomena proses kurikulum menggambarkan model manajemen kurikulum yang dikembangkan sekolah. Realita operasional proses kurikulum tersebut perlu dideskripsikan untuk ditemukan pola orientasi sistem manajamen kurikulum sekolah yang dapat dijadikan sebagai model rujukan sistem manajemen kurikulum sekolah standar internasional.

Fokus penelitianini adalah deskripsi manajemen kurikulum sekolah standar internasional berbasis integrasi standar nasional dan Cambridge International Primary Programme, dengan tujuan penelitian untuk merumuskan gambaran tentang dasar perencanaan kurikulum dalam identifikasi kebutuhan dan desain kurikulum, menggambarkan orientasi pengembangan kurikulum sekolah, dengan spesifikasi kebijakan kurikulum, pengembangan komponen kurikulum, pengembangan infrastruktur implementasi kurikulum, dan kebijakan implementasi kurikulum dalam perencanaan, pelaksanaan, penilaian program ujikualifikasi internasional, serta gambaran kebijakan evaluasi kurikulum sekolah, dengan spesifikasi tentang tujuan dan fungsi, sasaran dan mekanisme evaluasi kurikulum. Lokasi penelitian ada tiga situs dengan desain multi situs. Teknik pengumpulan data dengan metode wawancara mendalam, dokumentasi, observasi terfokus dan observasi partisipatori. Penentuan informan secara purposive. Informan kunci ditetapkan berdasarkan atas pemahaman dan intensitas keterlibatan dalam mekanisme kurikulum sekolah. Instrumen penelitian adalah peneliti sendiri. Prosedur pengumpulan data diawali dari pendalaman data darisitus pertama yang ditetapkan sebagai piloting. Situs piloting digunakan untuk menemukan dan menentukan kerangka kerja penelitian bagi pengumpulan data di situs-situs selanjutnya. Teknik analisis data menggunakan analisis induktif dimodifikasi untuk menyusun generalisasi temuan penelitian. Dimulai dengan analisis situs tunggal dari masing-masing situs, sehingga didapat temuan tentatif situs tunggal. Berdasar hasil temuan tentatif situs tunggal dari masing-masing situs, dilanjutkan analisis lintas situs antar temuan tentatif situs tunggal dengan teknik analisis induktif dimodifikasi. Prosedur analisis lintas situs diawali dari analisis antara temuan tentatif situs tunggal pertama dan kedua sehingga didapat temuan tentatif lintas situs. Gilirannya, temuan tentatif lintas situs, dianalisis secara induktif dimodifikasi dengan temuan tentatif situs ketigasehingga didapat temuanmulti situs sebagai temuan utama penelitian. Berdasar atas temuan utama tersebut, dirumuskan proposisi penelitian. Uji keabsahan datadilakukan dengan uji: (1) kredibilitas, melalui (a) triangulasiteori, sumber dan metode (b) tranferabilitas (c) dependabilitas dan (d) konfirmabilitas.

Berdasarkan analisis induktif dimodifikasi, didapat temuan penelitian berikut(1) standar internasional mutu layanan, produk, struktur, infrastruktur dan desain integratif basis kompetensi, diprioritaskan sebagai dasar dalam identifikasi kebutuhan dandesain standar perencanaan kurikulum sekolah, (2) kurikulum sekolah berbasis kompetensi dan integrasi holistik dengan kualitas layanan dan produk standar internasional secara, kolaboratif, demokratis, transparan akuntabel, dijadikan standar kebijakan pengembangan kurikulum sekolah; aspek proses, produk dan komponen kurikulum berstandar internasional, dijadikan standar kualitas pengembangan deskripsi produk kurikulum sekolah; standar internasional sarana prasarana, kompetensi profesional guru dan kemitraan secara internasional, diprioritaskan sebagai aspek dalam pengembangan infrastruktur untuk implementasi kurikulum sekolah, (3) silabus kompetensi integratif dan desain bahan program individual, yang disusun secara kolaboratif, dijadikan kriteria standar dalam perencanaan program; diferensiasi program belajar individual integrasi multi-media dan jaringan situs internasional serta infrastruktur yang kondusif dan penilaian program secara integratif dan langsung, ditetapkan sebagai kebijakan pelaksanaan program; Cambridge Progression Test dan Cambridge Checkpoint Test, diakomodasi sebagai program standar untuk penilaian dan uji kualifikasi internasional, (4) relevansi dan responsifitas kurikulum sekolah terhadap perubahanparadigma dan kebutuhan siswa, dijadikan sebagai dasar rasional dan tujuan evaluasi terhadap kurikulum; aspek proses, komponen, produk dan sistem penilaian, secara komprehensif ditetapkan sebagai standar utama aspek penilaian kurikulum sekolah; internaldan eksternal, sistemik, periodik dan berkesinambungan, adalah standar mekanisme evaluasi kurikulum.

Kesimpulan penelitian, desain manajemen kurikulum sekolah standar internasional berbasis integrasi standar nasional dan CIPP, diprioritaskan pada standarisasi kualitas dan desain layanan, produk dan sistem kendali mutu kurikulum dalam prespektif dan standar internasional. Perspektifdan standar internasional sebagai standar layanaan maupun kualitas produk lulusan, berimplikasi secara sistemik terhadap sistem manajemen sekolah. Implikasinya sekolah telah memiliki sistem jaringan dan kerjasamainternasional, sistem penjaminan, dan kendali mutu berstandar internasional, serta sistem akreditasi sekolah secara internasional. Penelitian ini dapat membuka khasanah baru kajian terhadap regulasi sekolah standar internasional

 

ABSTRACT

Saputro, Suprihadi, 2012. Management of School Curriculum in an International Standards of the National and Cambridge International Primary Programme Integrationbase. Dissertation, Education Management Graduate Program, State University of Malang. Promotor (I) Prof. Dr. H. Ibrahim Bafadal, M. Pd, (II) Prof. Dr. H. HendyatSoetopo, M. Pd, (III) Prof.H. A. Sonhadji K.H., M.A., Ph.D.

Key words: management of school curriculum, international standards, national and Cambridge International Primary Programme integration base

Agency for Laboratory EducationDevelopment, State University of Malang, through the Laboratory of Basic Education, was opened the joint partnership with the Cambridge International Examination to offer international tests. Under the Agreement Memo, Laboratory of Basic Education has been established as a center. In connection, the Laboratory of Basic Education, the dissemination of international standard curriculum by establishing partnerships with several primary schools nation wide. Form of partnership program is the implementation of the school curriculum based on the Cambridge International Primary Programme.Implementation of school curriculum respectively, have shown the following characteristics: (1) design schools implement curriculum integration, simultaneously (3) diveresproces instructional and individual approach, (4) ratings are designed integrally with the learning process (5) of each class guided by two teachers, (6) learning materials in the form of worksheets, (7) integrate the learning materials through a multi-media and networking sites, (8) interact using the international language, (9) every child has the opportunity to complete the task time variability study. Based on the characteristics of the school curriculum as described, each site of each school, the curriculum reflects the un-common management model.Therefore, application management curriculum model, appealing to explain, conceptually and in the formulation was found to be an alternative theoretical models of curriculum management.

In connection with the above, focus of this study is a description of in an international standard school curriculum management of National and CIPP integrated base. Obyective of study is to describes: (1) school curriculum planning based CIPP-CIE, with the identification of needs and design specifications, (2) developing school curriculum with a specification that describes the development of curriculum policy, development of curriculum component, and infrastructure of curriculum implementation, (3) implementation of the school curriculum with a specification that describes policy of the program planning, the implementation management, and international qualifications, (4) evaluation of the school curriculum with the specification that describes the curriculum objectives, targeted and evaluation mechanisms.

The study used a qualitative approach and the type of case study and the research design by multisite. Research is the main three research sites. Data collection techniques with in-depth interviews, documentation, observation and participant observation.Key informan by purposive sampling and than snowballtechnique for the other informan. Researcher as the instruments, and data collection procedures starting from the deepening of the first site designated as piloting. Pioneering sites that are used to locate and determine the framework for gathering research data from sites further.Techniques data analysis using inductive analysis modification to make a generalization statement. Step analysis of the study, (1) single-site analysis, carried out by collecting, organizing and analysis of single site to obtain temporary findings, (2) cross-site analysis through a comparison between the findings of a conceptual site 'first single and second, to get cross-site conceptual findings, (3) multi-site analysis with inductive analysis techniques modified between the cross-site findings and findings of the third single site, in order to obtain a multi-site conceptual findings.Based on findings from a multi-site analysis, to obtain conceptual propositions and then formulated as the research findings. Test validity, conducted by testing (1) credibility, through extension of time of research, peer discussion and triangulation (a) theory, (b) the sources and methods, (2) tranferability (3) dependability, and (4) confirmability.

Findings of the study are (1) international standard design and quality of service and product, components structure of the curriculum, competencies and qualifications of teachers, curriculum design characteristics, are the priority aspects in the identification of the needs of school curriculum planning, (2) competency based and integrate of education services and products in an international standards by holistic, collaborative, democratic, transparent and accountable, is the basic policy standard of school curriculum development; aspect of the product, process and components ofschool curriculum in an international standard, is the standard of school curriculum development; competence of teachers and partnership networkin an international, is the infrastructure of the implement factors considered in school curriculum development, (3) integrate, individual and based competence of the syllabus and materials design by collaborative approaches, iscriteriaof the planning program; diverse learning and individual program by integrating direct assesment, multi-media and networking and school infrastructure support, is a standard operating of implementation program management policy; Cambridge Primary Progression Tests and Checkpoint-achievement tests, is the international qualification standards as an external assessment, (4) maintain curriculum relevance and responsiveness of change in the paradigm of education and perspective of international needs, is the motivation of school curriculum evaluation; processes, components, and products by comprehensiveness, is aspects of school curriculumevaluation; internal and external, systemic, periodic and continuously, is the standard of the mechanismsevaluation of school curriculum

Conclusion of research are the quality and design of service, products, and control systems of school curriculum that meet quality standards in an international perspective, is used as the standard of school curriculum management design. Perspective and in an international standards as a reference of the school curriculum processes and products to realize the service system and an international quality achievement, have the systemic implication on a comprehensive school management system. Ensure that the school already has been a networking system and international cooperation, assurance and quality control system in an international standard, as well as international school accreditation system. The results of study could be a new repertoire for all education stakeholders in an improvement the wheels of innovation quality management system of international education.The recommendedare the perspective and international standards can be used as feedback, reference and correction of the regulation and application as well as improvement of school curriculumin an international standards and current educational research.