DISERTASI dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM, 2011

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

Pragmatic Competence of Upper Secondary School Students as EFL Learners. (Thesis)

Istikhonul Azza

Abstrak


Azza, Istikhonul. 2011. Pragmatic Competence of Upper Secondary School Students as EFL Learners. Thesis. Graduate Program in English Language Teaching, State University of Malang. Advisors: (I) A Effendi Kadarisman, M.A., Ph.D., and (II) Dr. Yazid Basthomi, M.A.

Keywords: pragmatic competence, EFL learners, speech act, strategy

Research has shown that one aspect of communicative competence namely, pragmatic competence lacks attention in EFL teaching. Consequently, students are exposed more to grammatical competence than other competence such as pragmatic competence. This present study aims to investigate the pragmatic strategies used by upper secondary school students in realizing speech acts, particularly in 5 speech acts namely thanking, apologizing, requesting, refusing, and responding to compliments, which more or less reflect their pragmatic competence. Since this study took an exemplary class as subjects of the study, the students of SMAN 3 Malang (IX IS 2) consisting of 25 students were chosen to complete the DCT questionnaire and perform role-play to obtain the data as they were assumed to have better English proficiency.

The design used in this study is descriptive research. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses were employed. Data for analysis consisted of 500 utterances elicited from DCT questionnaire as the main data, and 20 dialogues were taken from Role-play as additional data for the purpose of confirming the main data. Further, the obtained data were coded based on the code scheme developed by Cheng (2005) for thanking, Olstain and Cohen (1983) for apologizing, Blum-Kulka (1989) for requesting, Beebe et al. (1990) for refusing, and Holmes (1988) for responding to compliments.

The results show that the students employed almost the same pragmatic strategies in realizing speech acts of thanking, apologizing, requesting, refusing, and responding to compliments, which means that they were on the same level of competence. In realizing thanking, the students dominantly utilized direct thanking strategy (80%) which was quite similar to the strategy used by native speakers of English. Also, the students mostly used combination strategy (70%) in their apology realization, which combined explicit apology with the strategy of explanations, acknowledgment of responsibility, offer of repair, or promise of forbearance; this kind of realization is different from that of English native speakers. Next, it was found that the students realized their request act most frequently in conventionally indirect strategy, particularly query preparatory strategy (72%), which is a native-like strategy. Refusing was another speech act realized most frequently in combination strategy (79%) by combining direct refusal with regret or reason strategy, which is different from native speakers' strategy preference. Additionally, the students also tended to use an accepting strategy (57%) in realizing compliment responses, similar to native speakers' strategy preference. When the students were influenced by their native language and culture, oftentimes, a negative pragmatic transfer occurred.

Since the students' strategy preferences in realizing their speech acts were influenced by their native language and culture, it can be assumed that the students emphasized intimacy, informality, closeness, solidarity, and the need for being polite for the purpose of maintaining the relationship to their interlocutors. With regard to this phenomenon, the knowledge on cultural differences should be developed more in the teaching and learning process to make the students culturally aware of the differences between their native culture and foreign culture. Being culturally aware of the target language, it is expected that the students can achieve the goal of their communication successfully.

This finding is quite similar to the previous findings which confirm that lots of EFL learners cannot avoid pragmatic failures caused by their insufficient pragmatic knowledge potentially emanating from the students' lack of cultural sensitiveness to the target language, particularly in performing speech acts. Consequently, it is suggested that EFL teachers provide the students with more opportunities in having English exposure, particularly in cultural differences in using the language. The teachers can also use DCTs in the classroom as pragmatic exercises to assess the students' pragmatic development. Finally, it is recommended that future research be focused on how the speech acts are taught in EFL classroom to describe the real picture of the teaching of English with insights from pragmatics.

 

ABSTRAK

Azza, Istikhonul. 2011. Pragmatic Competence of Upper Secondary School Students as EFL Learners. Tesis. Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Program Pascasarjana Universitas Negeri Malang. Pembimbing: (I) A Effendi Kadarisman, M.A., Ph.D., and (II) Dr. Yazid Basthomi, M.A.

Kata kunci: kompetensi pragmatik, pembelajar EFL, tindak tutur, strategi

Penelitian menunjukkan bahwa salah satu aspek dari kompetensi komunikasi kurang mendapatkan perhatian dalam pengajaran bahasa Inggris. Sebagai konsekwensinya, siswa lebih diarahkan untuk belajar kompetensi grammatikal dari pada kompetensi komunikasi yang lain, seperti kompetensi pragmatik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menyelidiki strategi pragmatik yang dgunakan siswa sekolah menengah atas dalam merealisasikan tindak tutur, khususnya 5 tindak tutur yaitu berterima kasih, meminta maaf, meminta, menolak, dan menanggapi pujian, yang kurang lebih dapat mencerminkan kompetensi prakmatik siswa. Karena penelitian ini mengambil kelas contoh sebagai subyek penelitian, maka siswa SMAN 3 Malang (IX IS 2) yang terdiri atas 25 siswa dipilih untuk melengkapi angket isian wacana (DCT) dan bermain peran untuk mendapatkan data karena siswa SMAN 3 Malang dianggap mempunyai kecakapan bahasa Inggris yang lebih baik.

Desain penelitian ini adalah penelitian deskriptif. Analisa kuantitatif dan kualitatif digunakan untuk mengolah data. Terdapat 500 ujaran yang diperoleh dari angket isian wacana sebagai data utama dan 20 dialog yang diambil dari permainan peran sebagai data tambahan untuk memperkuat data utama. Selanjutnya, data dikode berdasarkan skema kode yang dikembangkan oleh Cheng (2005) untuk ujaran terima kasih, Olstain and Cohen (1983) untuk ujaran meminta maaf, Blum-Kulka (1989) untuk ujaran meminta, Beebe et al. (1990) untuk ujaran menolak, and Holmes (1988) untuk ujaran menanggapi pujian.

Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa siswa menggunakan strategi pragmatic yang hampir sama dalam merealisasikan ujaran terima kasih, memeinta maaf, meminta, menolak, dan menanggapi pujian yang berarti mereka mempunyai tingkat kompetensi yang sama. Dalam merealisasikan ujaran terima kasih, siswa secara dominan menggunakan strategy terima kasih langsung (80%) yang cukup sama dengan strategi yang digunakan oleh penutur asli bahasa Inggris. Kebanyakan siswa menggunakan strategi kombinasi (70%) dalam realisasi meminta maaf yang menggabung strategi meminta maaf langsung dengan strategi penjelasan, strategi bertanggungjawab, strategi menawarkan perbaikan, atau strategi berjanji untuk kesabaran, yang berbeda dari penutur asli bahas Inggris. Selanjutnya, ditemukan bahwa siswa lebih sering merealisasikan ujaran meminta mereka dalam strategi tidak langsung konvensional, khususnya dengan strategi persiapan permintaan (72%), yang hampir sama dengan penutur asli. Ujaran menolak merupakan tindak tutur lain yang digunakan siswa lebih sering dalam strategi kombinasi (79%) yang menggabungkan strategi penolakan langsung dengan strategi penyesalan dan alasan yang berbeda dari strategi yang dipakai penutur asli. Selanjutnya, siswa, juga cenderung menggunakan strategi menerima pujian (57%), yang sama dengan strategi yang dipakai penutur asli. Ketika siswa terpengaruh oleh bahasa asli dan budaya mereka, seringkali, terjadi transfer pragmatis yang negatif.

Karena strategi kesukaan siswa dalam merealisasikan tindak tutur dipengaruhi oleh bahasa asli dan budaya mereka, maka dapat di anggap bahwa mereka menggunakan strategi tersebut untuk menekankan kerukunan, keinformalan, kedekatan, solidatitas, dan kesantunan yang bertujuan untuk menjaga hubungan dengan teman bicaranya. Sehubungan dengan fenomena ini, pengetahuan tentang perbedaan yang berhubungan dengan budaya harus lebih dikembangkan dalam proses belajar mengajar untuk membuat siswa sadar secara kultural tentang perbedaan antara budaya asli mereka dan budaya asing. Menjadi sadar secara cultural terhadap bahasa sasaran/asing, siswa diharapkan dapat berhasil mencapai tujuan komunikasinya.