DISERTASI dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM, 2011

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

Pengembangan Model Pembelajaran Berdasarkan First Principles of Instruction Merrill dalam Pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris Di SMA Surabaya. (Disertasi)

Endang Mastuti Rahayu

Abstrak


Rahayu, E. Mastuti. 2011. Pengembangan Model Pembelajaran Berdasarkan First Principles of Instruction Merrill dalam Pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris Di SMA Surabaya. Disertasi. Fakultas Pascasarjana, Universitas Negeri Malang, Pembimbing: (I) Prof. Dr. Punaji Setyosari,M.Ed, (II) Prof.Dr. I Nyoman S Degeng,MPd, (III) Prof Dr. Dimyati.

Kata kunci : model pembelajaran, prinsip-prinsip Merrill.

Permasalahan pembelajaran bahasa Inggris saat ini disebabkan jumlah siswa di dalam kelas yang terlalu banyak, terbatasnya jam pelajaran bahasa Inggris, rendahnya motivasi siswa, kurang profesionalnya guru, dan kurangnya fasilitas belajar di sekolah. Berpijak dari definisi Reigeluth tentang model pembelajaran dan permasalahan yang dialami oleh siswa SMA pada saat belajar bahasa Inggris khususnya memahami tipe teks, maka dipilih model pembelajaran berdasarkan First Principles of Instruction Merrill. Merrill (2002) mendefinisikan First Principles of Instruction adalah prinsip pembelajaran preskriptif dari berbagai teori desain pembelajaran dan model. Apa saja sifat-sifat First Principles of Instruction , yakni: pertama, belajar dari program yang diberikan, kedua, First Principles of Instruction dapat dilaksanakan dalam sistem penyampaian atau digunakan dalam langkah-langkah pembelajaran. Ketiga, prinsip-prinsip tersebut berorientasi preskriptif daripada pembelajaran yang berorientasi pada deskriptif. Keduanya menciptakan lingkungan belajar dan produk bukan menggambarkan bagaimana siswa memperoleh pengetahuan dan keterampilan dari lingkungan atau produk tersebut.

Berdasarkan uraian latar belakang di atas, maka dapat dikatakan bahwa proses pembelajaran bahasa Inggris belum dilakukan secara optimal. Hal ini terjadi karena masih banyak guru yang belum merancang dan mengembangkan model pembelajaran yang relevan dengan kebutuhan dan karakteristik siswa yang diharapkan. Dalam rangka meningkatkan kualitas proses dan hasil pembelajaran pada siswa SMA penelitian ini mengembangkan suatu model pembelajaran, yakni model pembelajaran dengan menggunakan First Principles of Instruction Merrill. Model tersebut dikembangkan berdasarkan pada 3 hal , yaitu: (1) model pembelajaran yang bersifat memberi kesempatan pada siswa untuk mengeksplor kemampuannya dan membawa pada konteks dunia nyata, (2) kebutuhan strategi pembelajaran bahasa Inggris yang didukung dengan media interaktif guna meningkatkan hasil belajar siswa yang selama ini belum ada. (3) strategi pemilihan dan penetapan metode pembelajaran berdasarkan pada kegiatan analisis dan penetapan hasil pembelajaran yang diharapkan.

Pendekatan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah pendekatan berorientasi produk. Data Penelitian berupa data kualitatif dan kuantitatif. Data kualitatif dihimpun dari hasil penilaian, masukan, tanggapan kritikan dan saran perbaikan. Sedangkan data kuantitatif dihimpun dengan menggunakan angket yang berupa tanggapan terhadap pembelajaran bahasa Inggris dan produk secara umum dan tes pencapaian hasil belajar. Teknik sampling yang digunakan random sampling yakni SMA ITP dan SMA Barunawati Surabaya.

Hasil pengembangan menunjukkan:1. hasil tes kompetensi penguasaan pemahaman jenis teks sebelum menggunakan model pembelajaran berdasarkan prinsip-prinsip (FPI) Merrill, sebagai berikut: a) siswa kelas X SMA ITP menunjukkan 48,72% siswa yang mendapatkan nilai diatas 50. Sedangkan hasil penilaian tes kompetensi siswa (TKS) setelah menggunakan model pembelajaran berdasarkan First Principles of Instruction Merrill menunjukkan 82,05% siswa yang mendapatkan nilai diatas 50. Terjadi suatu peningkatan hasil penilaian sebelum dan setelah pembelajaran menggunakan model pembelajaran berdasarkan First Principles of Instruction Merrill sebesar 33,33%. b) siswa kelas X SMA BARUNAWATI menunjukkan 47,40% siswa mendapatkan nilai diatas 50. Sedangkan hasil penilaian TKS setelah menggunakan model pembelajaran berdasarkan First Principles of Instruction Merrill menunjukkan 60,13% siswa yang mendapatkan nilai diatas 50. Terjadi suatu peningkatan hasil belajar sebelum dan setelah pembelajaran menggunakan model pembelajaran berdasarkan First Principles of Instruction Merrill sebesar 12,73%. 2. efektifitas model pembelajaran berdasarkan First Principles of Instruction Merrill dalam pembelajaran bahasa Inggris adalah sebagai berikut: 1) SMA ITP, terjadi perbedaan mean kelompok siswa yang menggunakan model pembelajaran berdasarkan First Principles of Instruction Merrill dengan kelompok siswa yang menggunakan model pembelajaran konvensional sebesar 23%, 2) SMA BARUNAWATI, terjadi perbedaan mean kelompok siswa yang menggunakan model pembelajaran berdasarkan First Principles of Instruction Merrill dengan kelompok siswa yang menggunakan model pembelajaran konvensional sebesar 35%.

         Dari uraian di atas, maka dapat disimpulkan sebagai berikut: Model pembelajaran berdasarkan First Principles of Instruction telah menghasilkan dampak pembelajaran sebagaimana yang diharapkan, yakni; 1) model pembelajaran berdasarkan First Principles of Instruction Merrill dapat membantu menyelesaikan permasalahan siswa dalam memahami tipe teks, 2) hasil belajar siswa yang menggunakan model pembelajaran berdasarkan First Principles of Instruction Merrill lebih meningkat, 3) ada perbedaan hasil belajar siswa yang belajar mata pelajaran bahasa Inggris dengan menggunakan model pembelajaran berdasarkan First Principles of Instruction Merrill dengan yang menggunakan model pembelajaran konvensional, 4) pembelajaran bahasa Inggris lebih efektif dengan menggunakan model pembelajaran berdasarkan First Principles of Instruction Merrill.

 

ABSTRACT

Rahayu, E. Mastuti.2011. Developing of Instructional Model Based on Merryl's First Principles of Instruction for Teaching English in High schools in Surabaya. Dissertation. Post Graduate Faculty, State University of Malang, Advisors: (1) Prof. Dr. Punaji Setyosari, M.Ed, (2) Prof. Dr. I Nyoman S Degeng, M.Pd, and (III), Prof. Dr. Dimyati.

Key words: instructional models, Merryl's First Principles of Instruction

         Nowadays there are many problems regarding English language learning, for instance, the large number of students in one class, the limited time allotment available, less motivated students, teachers' low quality, and limited learning facilities. Based on Reigeluth's definition of instructional model and the problems faced by the senior-high school students, notably in comprehending text types or genres, Merryls' First Principles of Instruction were selected for the present study. Merrill (2002) defines the First Principles of Instruction is a prescriptive design principle on which various instructional design theories and models are in essential agreement. What are the properties of first principles of instruction? First, learning from a given program will be promoted in direct proportion to its implementation of first principles. Second, first principles of instruction can be implemented in any delivery system or using any instructional architecture. Third, these principles are design oriented or prescriptive rather than learning oriented or descriptive. They relate to creating learning environments and products rather than describing how learners acquire knowledge and skill from these environments or products.

 Based on the previously-mentioned background, it can be said that teaching English is not optimal. This happens because there are many teachers who have not designed and developed expected instructional models that are relevant to the needs and characteristics of students. In order to improve the quality of processes and learning outcomes of high school students, an instructional model using Merryl's First Principles of Instruction needed to be developed in the present study. The model was developed based on the following three things, namely: (1) instructional model in which students are given the opportunity to explore their abilities and lead to real-world contexts, (2) the needs of English language learning strategy which is supported by interactive media to enhance student learning outcomes but it has been currently unavailable. (3) the selection and confirmation strategy learning method based on activity analysis and determination of the expected learning outcomes.

The present study employed the product-oriented approach. The research data were in the form of qualitative and quantitative data. The qualitative data were gathered from the assessment, feedback, response criticism and suggestions for improvement. While the quantitative data were collected using the questionnaire in the form of responses to learning the English language and general product and test achievement of learning outcomes. The samples of the study were Intensive Taruna Pembangunan (ITP) and Barunawati high schools in Surabaya selected from the random sampling technique.

The results showed that: (1) the competency test results of the mastery of understanding the types of text before using the instructional model based on Merryl's First Principles of Instruction were as follows: (a) 48.72% of students of class X ITP high school scored above 50. While the competency test results after using the instructional model based on Merryl's First Principles of Instruction showed that 82.05% of students scored above 50. An increasing result before and after learning using the instructional model based on First Principles of Instruction Merrill was 33.33%. (b) 47.40 % of students of class X Barunawati high school scored above 50. While the TKS assessment results after using the instructional model based on Merryl's First Principles of Instruction showed that 60.13% of the students scored above 50. An increasing results before and after learning using the instructional model based on Merryl's First Principles of Instruction was 12.73%. (2) The effectiveness of the instructional model based on Merryl's First Principles of Instruction in teaching English was as follows: (a) For ITP high school, the mean differences in student group that used a instructional model based on Merryl's First Principles of Instruction with groups of students who used the conventional instructional model was 23%, 2) For Barunawati high school, the mean differences in the groups of students who used a instructional model based on Merryl's First Principles of Instruction with groups of students who used the conventional learning model was 35%.

From the above description, it can be concluded as follows: The model of instructional based on Merryl's First Principles of Instruction has produced a learning effect as expected, namely: (1) the instructional model based on Merryl's First Principles of Instruction could solve the problems of students in understanding the type of text, (2) the student learning outcomes using the instructional model based on Merryl's First Principles of Instruction increased (3) there were differences in learning outcomes of students who learned English using the instructional model based on Merryl's First Principles of Instruction and the ones using the conventional instructional model, and (4) the learning of English was more effective by using the instructional model based on Merryl's First Principles of Instruction Merrill.