DISERTASI dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM, 2010

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

Pengaruh Akumulasi Logam Berat terhadap Protein dan Vitamin Sayuran Air serta Pemanfaatannya dalam Penyusunan Bahan Bacaan Efek Fitoremediasi. (Disertasi)

Hening Widowati

Abstrak


Widowati, Hening. 2010. Pengaruh Akumulasi Logam Berat terhadap Protein dan Vitamin Sayuran Air serta Pemanfaatannya dalam Penyusunan Bahan Bacaan Efek Fitoremediasi. Disertasi, Program Studi Pendidikan Biologi Program Pascasarjana Universitas Negeri Malang. Pembimbing (I) Prof. Dr. Aloysius Duran Corebima, M.Pd., (II) Dr. Wignyanto, M.S, (III) Dr. Endang Suarsini, M.Ked.

 

Kata kunci: akumulasi logam berat, bahan bacaan efek fitoremediasi, kadar protein dan vitamin sayuran air

Pencemaran logam berat akibat perkembangan teknologi dan aktivitas manusia modern sulit dikendalikan, berpeluang terakumulasi pada habitat pertanian. Tanaman sayuran dapat berperan sebagai fitoremediator pencemaran, yang menyerap logam berat. Logam berat yang terserap ke dalam batang dan daun yang dikonsumsi, selanjutnya akan masuk ke dalam siklus rantai makanan. Logam berat akan bertindak sebagai radikal bebas prooksidan, bila melebihi batas toleransi dapat menimbulkan keracunan bagi tumbuhan, hewan maupun manusia. Untuk menghilangkan efek negatif radikal bebas, tanaman mengembangkan mekanisme pertahanan diri dengan menerapkan sistem antioksidan oleh vitamin antioksidan A dan C, sehingga kadar vitamin dalam sayuran menurun. Mencermati penyerapan logam berat dan hubungannya dalam mempengaruhi kadar protein, vitamin A, vitamin C melalui perubahan warna hijau sayuran merupakan langkah antisipasi pengaruh negatif logam berat pencemar.

 Penelitian bertujuan mengidentifikasi logam berat yang berpotensi terakumulasi pada organ sayuran air, dan pengaruhnya terhadap kandungan protein, vitamin A, vitamin C dan perubahan warna pada batang dan daun sayuran. Penelitian Tahap I melakukan survei di lingkungan bersih dan tercemar. Data dianalisis dengan One-Way Anova, regresi dan korelasi untuk mengetahui ada tidaknya pengaruh dan kontribusi masing-masing logam berat dalam mempengaruhi protein dan vitamin sayuran. Penelitian Tahap II melakukan eksprimen untuk menguji besar akumulasi logam berat pencemar pada organ sayuran yang dikonsumsi dan pengaruhnya terhadap kadar vitamin antioksidan A dan C, serta perubahan warna hijau pada batang dan daunnya. Percobaannya menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok 3 faktor, meliputi faktor pertama variasi jenis sayuran, faktor kedua variasi bagian organ sayuran, faktor ketiga variasi media tercemar logam berat, dalam tiga waktu pemanenan yaitu sebelum, tepat, dan setelah kebiasaan memanen. Data dianalisis dengan One-Way Anava Faktorial untuk melihat ada tidaknya perbedaan, serta Anakova untuk melihat perbedaan sebelum dan setelah perlakuan, dilanjutkan Uji Beda Nyata Jujur/HSD dan Duncan; Regresi untuk mengetahui pengaruh logam berat terhadap vitamin A, vitamin C, dan warna hijau pada batang dan daun sayuran; serta Korelasi untuk mengetahui hubungan di antaranya. Hasil penelitian dimanfaatkan untuk antisipasi pengaruh logam berat terhadap penurunan protein, vitamin A, dan vitamin C dengan menyusun bahan bacaan efek fitoremediasi berupa buku pengetahuan dan leaflet pemberdayaan masyarakat dalam pendidikan keamanan pangan

 Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, dapat disusun kesimpulan: 1) Perairan tercemar logam berat yang ditumbuhi sayuran air memiliki karakteristik melebihi ambang batas maksimal persyaratan air kelas IV untuk pertanaman pada parameter BOD, COD, DHL, pH, logam berat Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, dan Zn.; 2) Logam berat As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, dan Zn secara bersama-sama mempengaruhi kadar protein, vitamin A, dan vitamin C vitamin sayuran air. Secara parsial, protein genjer dipengaruhi kenaikan Cd; protein kangkung dan selada air dipengaruhi kenaikan Pb. Vitamin A Genjer dipengaruhi kenaikan Cd parsial atau bersama-sama kenaikan Cd dan penurunan Zn; vitamin A pada kangkung air dipengaruhi kenaikan kenaikan Pb bersama-sama penurunan As, Cd, Zn; protein pada selada air dipengaruhi kenaikan Pb parsial atau bersama-sama kenaikan Pb dan penurunan As. Vitamin C genjer dipengaruhi kenaikan Cd atau bersama-sama kenaikan Cd dan penurunan Zn; vitamin C pada kangkung air dan selada air dipengaruhi oleh kenaikan Pb. Secara umum logam Cd dan Pb paling dominan mempengaruhi penurunan protein, vitamin A, dan vitamin C sayuran air; 3) Ada perbedaan akumulasi logam berat Cd, Pb pada organ batang dan daun berbagai jenis sayuran dalam berbagai waktu pemanenan. Akumulasi logam berat lebih banyak pada bagian batang, pada media logam berat tunggal (Cd atau Pb saja). Akumulasi logam berat Cd terbanyak pada kangkung air, selanjutnya selada air, dan terakhir genjer. Akumulasi logam berat Pb terbanyak pada selada air, selanjutnya kangkung air, dan terakhir pada genjer; 4) Ada perbedaan kadar vitamin A, vitamin C, dan angka skala warna hijau karena pengaruh jenis sayuran, macam media, jenis organ sayuran dan interaksi di antaranya, dalam berbagai waktu pemanenan. Penurunan kadar vitamin A, vitamin C, dan angka skala warna hijau tertinggi pada medium tercemar logam berat tunggal (Cd atau Pb saja) dibandingkan pada medium tercemar campuran antar logam berat (campuran Cd, Pb). Semakin lama rentang waktu pemanenan, semakin tinggi penurunan kadar vitamin A, vitamin C, dan angka skala warna hijau batang dan daun sayuran air; 5) Ada hubungan antara akumulasi logam berat Cd, Pb dengan kadar vitamin A, vitamin C, dan warna skala hijau pada batang dan daun sayuran air. Kenaikan Cd, Pb berpengaruh menurunkan kadar vitamin A, vitamin C, dan warna skala hijau pada batang dan daun sayuran. Besar pengaruh logam berat dalam menurunkan kadar vitamin A, vitamin C, dan warna skala hijau pada batang dan daun untuk masing-masing jenis sayuran adalah tidak sama. Hasil penelitian pengaruh logam berat pencemar terhadap protein dan vitamin sayuran air dapat dimanfaatkan untuk menyusun bahan bacaan umum berupa buku pengetahuan dan leaflet tentang efek fitoremediasi.

 

ABSTRACT

Widowati, Hening. 2010. The Influence of Heavy Metal Accumulation Against the Protein and Vitamin of Aquatic Plants Along with its Utilization for Make Reading Materials of Phytoremediation Effect. Dissertation, Graduate Program in Biology Education State University of Malang, Advisor (I) Prof. Dr. Aloysius Duran Corebima, M.Pd., (II) Dr. Wignyanto, M.S, (III) Dr. Endang Suarsini, M.Ked.

 

Key Words : heavy metal accumulation, content of protein and vitamin in aquatic plant, reading material of phytoremediation effect

The heavy metal contamination as the impact of the technological developments and modern human activity those are difficult to control, likely to accumulate to the agricultural habitats. Vegetable plant can act as phytoremediator pollution, to absorb the heavy metal. The heavy metal was absorbed by stems and leaves which consumed, further will enter into food chain cycle. The heavy metal will act as free radical pro-oxidant, if it exceeds the tolerance limit, it will cause toxicity to plants, animals and humans. To omit the negative effect of the free radical, a plant develops a defense mechanism by applying the antioxidant system by the antioxidant vitamin A, and C, so that the degrees of vitamins in vegetables decrease. To examine the absorption of the heavy metals and the relationship in influencing the rate of protein, vitamin A, vitamin C through mutation of green vegetable is a precaution toward the negative influence of heavy metal pollutants.

The research aims to identify the potentially accumulated heavy metal on the water vegetable, and its influence on the content of protein, vitamin A, vitamin C and the color mutation on stems and leaves of vegetables. Research stage I was to survey at the unpolluted and polluted environment. The data were analyzed with One-Way Anova, the regression to know the contribution of each heavy metal in influencing vegetable's protein and vitamin. Research stage II were to carry out an experiment to examine large accumulation of heavy metal pollutants on vegetable's organ consumed and its influence to the levels of antioxidant vitamin A and C, as well the green mutation on stems and leaves. The experiment utilized randomized block design of three factors, involves the first factor is various types of vegetables taken their stems and leaf organs, the second factor is various media contaminated with heavy metals, the third factor is harvesting time variation: prior, exact, and post harvest. The data were analyzed with Anova to see whether the distinction exists, along with Anacova to see the distinction before and after treatment; further HSD/Tuckey tests to know the distinction of the heavy metal absorption, the levels of vitamin A, vitamin C, and green figure scale, A regression is directed to know the influence of heavy metal against vitamin A, vitamin C, and green on stems and vegetable's leaves; along with the correlation to see the relationship between them. The research outcome is used to anticipate the influence of heavy metal against the declining of protein, vitamin A, and vitamin C by arranging leaflets and books of fitoremediation effect.

Based on the research outcome, can be concluded: 1) the water which contaminated with heavy metals and grown by vegetable water is characterized by exceeding the maximum threshold of water qualification category IV for cultivated area in the parameter of BOD, COD, DHL, Ph, heavy metals of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn.; 2) the heavy metals of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn simultaneously influence the contents of protein, vitamin A, and vitamin C of water vegetable. Partially, the velvetleaf (genjer)'s protein is effected by Cd rise; water spinach (kangkung air)'s protein and watercress (selada air)'s protein are effected by Pb rise, the vitamin A of the velvetleaf is effected by Cd rise partially or simultaneously with the Cd rise and the declining of Zn; vitamin A on water spinach is effected by Zn rise partially or simultaneously with Zn rise and the declining of As; the watercress' protein is effected by Pb rise partially or simultaneously with Pb and As rise. Vitamin C of velvetleaf is effected by Cd rise or simultaneously with Cd rise and the declining of Zn. Vitamin C on water spinach and watercress are effected by Pb rise. Generally, Cd and Pb metals are dominantly influence the declining of protein, vitamin A, and vitamin C in water vegetables; 3) there is a distinctive accumulation of Cd, Pb heavy metal in stem organs and leaves in the various types of vegetables in different harvesting time. The heavy metal accumulation is more exist in stems, and single heavy metal media (Cd or Pb only). The accumulation of Cd is mostly on water spinach, along with watercress, and velvetleaf. The accumulation of Pb is mostly on watercress, along with water spinach, and velvetleaf; 4) there is a distinction level of vitamin A, vitamin C, and green figure scale as the influence of vegetable types, various media, vegetable organ types and the interaction, in the various harvesting time. The declining level of vitamin A, vitamin C, and the green figure scale is highest occurred on single heavy metal contaminated medium (Cd or Pb only) compared to contaminated medium mixture to heavy metal (mixture of Cd, Pb). The longer span of harvesting time, the higher the declining level of vitamin A, vitamin C, and the green figure scale of stems and the water vegetables' leaves; 5) there is a correlation between heavy metal accumulation of Cd, Pb to the content of vitamin A, vitamin C, and the green figure scale on stems and the water vegetables' leaves. The increase of Cd, Pb influence to lower level of vitamin A, vitamin C, and the green figure scale on stems and vegetable's leaves. Large influence of heavy metal in lowering the content of vitamin A, vitamin C, and the green figure scale on stems and leaves to each type of vegetables is not same. The research outcome of the influence of heavy metal pollutant against protein and vitamin in water vegetables can be arranged to be knowledge books and leaflets of phytoremediation effect.