DISERTASI dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM, 2010

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

Perencanaan Pengembangan Profesional Guru, (Embedded Case Study Pada Guru SMK Negeri 1 Kota Manado, SMK Negeri 1 Kota Manado, Dinas Pendidikan Kota Manado di Propinsi Sulawesi Utara). (Disertasi)

Jenny Evelin Palunsu

Abstrak


Palunsu, Jenny Evelin, 2010. Perencanaan Pengembangan Profesional Guru, (Embedded Case Study Pada Guru SMK Negeri 1 Kota Manado, SMK Negeri 1 Kota Manado, Dinas Pendidikan Kota Manado di Propinsi Sulawesi Utara). Disertasi, Program Studi Manajemen Pendidikan, Program Pascasarjana, Universitas Negeri Malang. Pembimbing: (1) Prof. Dr. Ibrahim Bafadal, M.Pd, (II) Prof. Dr. Hendyat Soetopo, M.Pd, dan (III) Prof. Ahmad Sonhadji, K. H. MA. Ph.D.

 

Kata kunci: perencanaan, pengembangan profesional, guru kejuruan

Perencanaan adalah salah satu komponen dalam manajemen dalam suatu organsisasi, termasuk sekolah. Pengembangan profesional guru merupakan hal yang harus direncanakan dengan baik oleh sekolah mempertimbangkan berbagai aspek. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pengembangan profesional guru kejuruan seharusnya direncanakan secara logis dan sistematis, mengacu pada kebutuhan kuantitas maupun kualitas guru. Perencanaan pengembangan profesional guru seharusnya dilakukan oleh sekolah agar fleksibel dalam mengelola SDMnya. Sekolah dan guru perlu bekerja kolaboratif dalam menetapkan jenis pengembangan yang sesuai kebutuhan. Waktu pengembangan profesional yang dibutuhkan guru dapat disediakan sekolah. Dana pengembangan profesional juga harus disediakan. Pengembangan profesional yang berkualitas (selain pendidikan lanjut) dapat mencapai 1,8% dari total anggaran pendidikan. Keberlanjutan program pengembangan harus direncanakan didasarkan pada kebutuhan dan masukan guru. Dengan didukung berbagai fakta di lapangan serta kajian di atas telah mendorong peneliti melakukan penelitian pada Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan dan Dinas Pendidikan di Kota Manado. Perseptor penelitian ini adalah guru kejuruan produktif dan pimpinan SMK Negeri 1 Manado serta dan pimpinan Dinas Pendidikan Kota Manado.

Penelitian ini bertujuan: (1) mendeskripsikan pola perencanaan aktivitas; (2) mendeskripsikan pola perencanaan waktu; (3) mendeskripsikan pola perencanaan dana; (4) mendeskripsikan pola perencanaan keberlanjutan program; (5) mendeskripsikan pola keterlibatan guru dalam perencanaan pengembangan profesional guru menggunakan mixed method dengan rancangan embedded case study dominan kualitatif. Pendekatan kuantitatif digunakan untuk menjawab rumusan masalah yakni bagaimana persepsi perseptor terhadap perencanaan pengembangan profesional guru. Data dikumpulkan menggunakan angket kepada sampel sebanyak populasi sejumlah 47 guru kejuruan produktif dan 15 orang pimpinan pada SMK Negeri 1 Kota Manado, serta 6 orang pimpinan Dinas Pendidikan Kota Manado. Analisis data menggunakan statistik deskriptif univariate. Pendekatan kualitatif digunakan untuk menjawab fokus penelitian yaitu bagaimana perencanaan pengembangan profesional guru untuk aspek aktivitas, aspek waktu, aspek dana, aspek keberlanjutan program, dan aspek keterlibatan guru dalam perencanaan. Pada tahapan awal penelitian telah ditetapkan kasus dari penelitian menggunakan The Braunswikian Lens Model dengan 3 langkah awal dari Nine Step Formative Analysis. Teknik pengumpulan data kualitatif meliputi (1) wawancara mendalam; (2) studi dokumentasi. Informan dipilih menggunakan teknik purposif sampling. Data diperiksa kredibilitas menggunakan teknik trianggulasi, member check, dan peer discussion. Analisis data dilakukan untuk masing-masing perseptor menggunakan concurrent data analysis. Embedd/transformasi dilakukan untuk hasil analisis data kuantitatif ke dalam temuan analisis data kualitatif, kemudian dilakukan analisis lintas perseptor menggunakan cross-site analysis.

Kesimpulan penelitian: (1) Perencanaan Aktivitas. Pola perencanaan aktivitas pengembangan guru masih menggunakan top down policy dan belum berbasis kebutuhan pengembangan guru. Guru membutuhkan rencana aktivitas pengembangan profesional yang disusun sesuai kebutuhan serta didasarkan hasil analisis kebutuhan jurusan. Rencana aktivitas pengembangan profesional harus merupakan hasil kerjasama antara Guru, Sekolah, Dinas Pendidikan dan pihak eksternal. Hasil perencanaan aktivitas disusun dan dicantumkan pada rencana sekolah maupun Dinas Pendidikan secara jelas dan detail. Aktivitas pengembangan yang direncanakan oleh pihak eksternal harus disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan guru dan sekolah serta standar dan target kurikulum sekolah. Aktivitas pengembangan seperti pengkajian kurikulum, penataran, pelatihan dan seminar yang direncanakan oleh pihak eksternal seperti P4TK, LPMP, Dinas Pendidikan, Universitas, dll. selalu merupakan hasil koordinasi dengan Sekolah dan Dinas Pendidikan. (2) Perencanaan waktu. Pola perencanaan waktu pengembangan profesional guru belum dimiliki oleh guru, sekolah maupun Dinas Pendidikan. Kebanyakan waktu pengembangan hanya berdasarkan pada ketersediaan dari pihak eksternal dan motivasi individual guru dalam melaksanakan pengembangan diri. Sekolah belum memiliki ketetapan-ketetapan jumlah waktu pengembangan profesi yang disusun secara memadai dan seimbang oleh Sekolah, Dinas Pendidikan maupun pihak eksternal. Dinas Pendidikan dapat menetapkan prosentase waktu bagi pengembangan profesional guru misalnya 20% dari waktu kerja guru dalam setahun untuk melakukan pengembangan profesional. (3) Perencanaan dana. Pola perencanaan dana pengembangan profesional guru belum sepenuhnya dimiliki oleh guru, sekolah maupun Dinas Pendidikan. Ada beberapa ketetapan yang telah dimiliki oleh sekolah, meskipun perencanaan dana seharusnya disusun oleh guru sendiri karena juga menggunakan dana sendiri, dana sekolah, dan Dinas Pendidikan maupun dana pihak eksternal. Dalam merencanakan pendanaan pengembangan profesional guru seharusnya merupakan kerja kolaboratif guru, sekolah, Dinas Pendidikan dan pihak eksternal. Ketetapan-ketetapan pendanaan bagi kebutuhan aktivitas pengembangan profesional guru dibuat sekolah dan dirancang secara bersama melibatkan semua elemen yang ada di sekolah. Ketetapan-ketetapan pendanaan untuk menentukan besaran satuan aktivitas per orang sesuai jarak, lama waktu kegiatan dan kebutuhan yang terkait. (4) Perencanaan keberlanjutan program. Pola keberlanjutan program pengembangan profesional guru belum sepenuhnya dimiliki guru, sekolah maupun Dinas Pendidikan. Rencana pengembangan profesional guru seharusnya disusun oleh guru sendiri baik untuk jangka pendek maupun jangka panjang. Sekolah dan Dinas Pendidikan serta pihak eksternal, dalam proses perencanaan pengembangan profesional guru, selalu harus mempertimbangkan kesinambungan dan keberlanjutan serta tindak lanjut setiap program. Sekolah (termasuk jurusan-jurusan) dan Dinas Pendidikan secara terus-menerus bekerjasama dengan pihak eksternal untuk program pengembangan profesional guru khususnya pengembangan kurikulum agar terjadi kesinambungan dan tidak tumpang tindih. (5) Keterlibatan guru dalam perencanaan. Pola keterlibatan guru dalam penetapan program pengembangan profesional guru di sekolah telah ada yakni secara secara langsung maupun tidak langsung. Tetapi dalam menyusun rencana, sekolah belum sepenuhnya melibatkan semua elemen sekolah termasuk kelompok guru karena guru lebih tahu kebutuhannya. Sekolah dapat menetapkan mekanisme keterlibatan setiap elemen sekolah dalam perencanaan terutama elemen guru.

Saran penelitian antara lain: kepada semua guru kejuruan produktif, manajemen SMK Negeri 1 Manado dan SMK-SMK lainnya, Dinas Pendidikan Kota Manado dan Dinas Pendidikan Kabupaten/Kota lainnya; pengembang kebijakan pendidikan; PEMDA; DPRD; Kementerian Pendidikan Nasional untuk lebih mempertimbangkan secara komprehensif dalam melakukan perencanaan pengembangan guru. Sedangkan bagi peneliti lain dan program studi manajemen pendidikan disarankan untuk melakukan perbandingan-perbandingan pemahaman dan standar profesional satu negara dengan negara lain yang dapat dijadikan bahan studi komparasi penting pada bidang manajemen.

  ABSTRACT

 

Palunsu, Jenny Evelin, 2010. Planning of Teacher Professional Development (Embedded Case Study at Vocational School Teachers, Public Vocational School 1 Manado, Dinas Pendidikan at Manado City, North Sulawesi Province. Dissertation, Educational Management, Post Graduate Program, Malang State University. Advisors: (I) Prof. Dr. Ibrahim Bafadal, M.Pd, (II) Prof. Dr. Hendyat Soetopo, M.Pd, dan (III) Prof. Ahmad Sonhadji, K. H. MA. Ph.D.

 

Key words: planning, professional development, vocational teachers

Planning is one of four of management component. In the organization, including school, planning should be well prepared. Planning for teachers professional development (PD in abbreviation) is one important matter that school should have. Planning for teacher PD can be done by teachers themselves, school managers, and educational district managers collaborativelly and should be dealing with a development aspects. Some theoritical study and research findings showed that vocational teachers PD programm should be planned logically and sistematically with concerning on the need of teacher quantity and quality and also should be planned by school itself for being flexibel on managing their human resources. School managers and teachers need to work collaborativelly, in term of determining appropriate programm which meet the teacher development needs. With regard to time for teacher PD, state can provide a compensation of teacher working time. Budgeting for quality teacher PD programm (excluding advance education) was arround 1,8% from the total state or province educational budget. Teacher PD program should also be planned continually and its topics should be based on teacher needs and inputs. Those theoretical study and some facts in the field about teacher PD motivated me to study and to investigate how Manado Public Vocational School and Dinas Pendidikan at Manado City have plan the PD. The unit analysis/perceptors in this research are vocational teachers and leaders of Public Vocational School and leaders of Dinas Pendidikan at Manado City. This three stakeholders are important in determining teacher PD planning in school.

The purposes of this study were: (1) to describe PD activities planning; (2) to describe PD time planning; (3) to describe PD budget planning; (4) to describe continuation program on PD planning; (5) to describe teacher involvement in PD planing procces. This study was categorized as mixed method with embedded case study design (dominated by qualitative approach). The quantitative approach was used to answer the question of how is the perception of perceptors of teacher PD planning. Quantitative data was collected from 47 teachers of Manado Public Vocational School, 15 persons of Manado Public Vocational School managers and 6 persons of managers of Dinas Pendidikan at Manado City as a sample by using questionaree. The data was described by using Mean on descriptive statistic univariate and multivariate analysis. The qualitative approach was used to answer the research focuses about how is the pattern or proccess of teacher PD planning done by vocational teachers and managers of Public Vocational School and managers of Dinas Pendidikan at Manado City in particular aspects as mentioned in research purposes. In order to determine the case, it has been used three steps of nine step formative analysis in The Braunswikian Lens Model. The collecting qualitative data was taken from informan using purposive sampling technique. The informan were 3 vocational teachers and 6 managers at Manado Public Vocational School and 5 Manado Dinas Pendidikan managers. The collecting data profound: (1) in-depth interview and (2) documentations study. Informan was taken using purposive sampling. The credibility of collected data was checked using trianggulation, member checked, and peer debriefing. Data analysis has done for each perseptors using concurrent data analysis. Embedd/transform was done for quantitative findings to the qualitative findings. Afterwards, cross analysis for perseptors using cross-site analysis was done.

The result of the analysis showed: (1) Activitiy Planning. Pattern of planning on teacher PD activities still used top down policy and often not based on teacher development need yet. Planning on teacher PD activities should be based on colaborative planning between teachers, school planners, educational districts planners and external stakeholdes. The plan should clear, detailed and embedded on school and educational district plan. Activities planning, which planned by external stakeholders should always be adjusted to the teacher and school needs and also meet to the curriculum standards and goals. PD activities such as study the curriculum, training, seminar and others, which planned by external stakeholders like P4TK, LPMP, Dinas Pendidikan, University, etc., should be based on coordination results with schools and educational district office. (2) Time Planning. Pattern of time planning of teacher PD has not been made by teacher, school and educational district. Most of development time based on what has been given from external stakeholders and by motivation of teachers themselves. School has no specific and equal regulation of utilization of development time. Educational district can create regulation of teacher PD time like 20% of working time and it should provided to teacher to do PD. (3) Budget Planning. Pattern of budget planning of teacher PD is not really ready among teachers, school and educational district. School has already been made some regulation. But teacher does not have their own budget planning for PD. Teacher, school, educational district and external stakeholders should plan budget for teacher PD collaborativelly. The budget regulation for teacher PD which is made by school was not involved by all school elements yet. The budget regulations are used to determine the amount of each person per activities based on distance, duration and related needs. (4) Continuation Program Planning. Pattern of continuation planning of teacher PD has not been made by teachers, school and educational district. Teacher PD planning should compiled by teacher themselves for short and long term program. School, educational district and external stakeholders, in planning procces, should consider to the sustainability, continuation of program and follow-up of each program. School and program study should always working collaborativelly and continually with educational district, external stakeholders, particularly working on curricula. So that will be no more overlapping program and should continue. (5) Involved Teacher in Planning. Pattern of involving teachers in planning proccess has been working sometimes, directly and indirectly. But in planning procces, school does not involved all schools element including teachers, eventhough teachers knew more their development needs. School can build a mechanism of teacher involving in planning procces.

Several suggestions are offered to all vocational teachers, Public Vocational School and other Vocational Schools, Dinas Pendidikan in Manado City and other cities; Educational Policy Developers; Local Government; Manado City Representatives; Ministry of Education. For those all, the suggestions are to be considered comprehensively in doing teacher PD plan. For others researchers and educational management of study program was offered to hold comparisons understanding and professional standards between countries.