DISERTASI dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM, 2010

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

Implementasi Kebijakan SD-SMP Satu Atap (Studi Multisitus di Kecamatan Ngablak, Pakis dan Sawangan Kabupaten Magelang). (Disertasi)

Wiwik Wijayanti

Abstrak


Wijayanti, Wiwik. 2011. Implementasi Kebijakan SD-SMP Satu Atap (Studi Multisitus di Kecamatan Ngablak, Pakis dan Sawangan Kabupaten Magelang). Disertasi, Program Studi Manajemen Pendidikan, Program Pascasarjana, Universitas Negeri Malang. Pembimbing: (I) Prof. Dr. Hendyat Soetopo, M.Pd, (II) Prof. Dr. Ibrahim Bafadal, M.Pd, dan (III) Prof. Ahmad Sonhadji, K. H, MA. Ph.D.

 

Kata kunci: wajib belajar, SD-SMP Satu Atap, implementasi kebijakan.

Implementasi kebijakan pendidikan adalah suatu proses menjalankan, menyelenggarakan atau mengupayakan alternatif yang sudah ditetapkan untuk mencapai tujuan. SD-SMP Satu Atap merupakan salah satu kebijakan pendidikan. Dalam implementasi kebijakan SD-SMP Satu Atap harus didukung oleh ketersediaan komponen-komponen sistem pendidikan yang lain seperti, ketersediaan siswa, guru, tenaga kependidikan, kurikulum, sarana prasarana, keuangan, dan stakeholders, agar tujuan pendidikan dapat dicapai secara efektif dan efisien.

Dalam pengelolaan pendidikan selalu saja ada masalah. Upaya pemecahan masalah tersebut untuk memenuhi harapan dan tuntutan masyarakat. Pengimplementasian kebijakan SD-SMP Satu Atap ini perlu adanya perencanaan. Perencanaan yang sudah disusun dan diputuskan harus disosialisasikan kepada stakeholders agar mereka mengerti, memahami, dan pada akhirnya mendukung program atau kebijakan ini. Setelah program disosialisasikan, proses selanjutnya adalah implementasi kebijakan. Dengan keterlibatan stakeholders dan dukungan komponen-komponen yang lain, maka keberadaan SD-SMP Satu Atap akan tetap berlangsung dan berkualitas. Bagaimana pengimplementasian kebijakan SD-SMP Satu Atap dan keberlanjutan programnya belum begitu terungkap. Semua hal yang akan diungkap dalam penelitian ini adalah yang berkaitan dengan proses implementasi kebijakan SD-SMP Satu Atap, yang meliputi proses perencanaan SD-SMP Satu Atap, proses sosialisasi SD-SMP Satu Atap, proses implementasi , dan peran stakeholders.

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk: (1) mendeskripsikan proses perencanaan kebijakan SD-SMP Satu Atap; (2) mendeskripsikan proses sosialisasi kebijakan SD-SMP Satu Atap; (3) mendeskripsikan proses implementasi kebijakan SD-SMP Satu Atap; dan (4) mendeskripsikan peran stakeholders dalam implementasi kebijakan SD-SMP Satu Atap.

Pendekatan penelitian menggunakan kualitatif dan penelitian dirancang dengan menggunakan multisitus. Sumber data meliputi: Kepala SD-SMP Satu Atap sebagai key informan, guru, siswa, masyarakat, Kepala UPT dan Kasi Dikdas. Dalam kegiatan pengumpulan data terbagi atas tiga tahapan, yakni (1) tahap persiapan; (2) tahap pengumpulan data; dan (3) tahap pencatatan data. Data yang terkumpul dianalisa dengan kegiatan (1) pengkoleksian data; (2) penampilan data, (3) reduksi data; dan (4) kesimpulan dan verifikasi. Pengecekan serta keabsahan data dilakukan dengan menggunakan derajat kepercayaan, derajat keterlibatan, derajat ketergantungan dan derajat kepastian.

Temuan penelitian yang dilakukan pada tiga SD-SMP Satu Atap menunjukkan bahwa (1) perencanaan pendirian SD-SMP Satu Atap sesuai dengan persyaratan terisolir, terpencil dan terpencar; berdasarkan kebutuhan masyarakat (social demand approach); dalam perencanaan melibatkan berbagai pihak; (2) sosialisasi dilakukan oleh Kepala SD-SMP Satu Atap kepada tokoh masyarakat untuk disampaikan kepada warga masyarakat; kesadaran masyarakat dalam pendidikan semakin meningkat; (3) pihak SD, SMP dan desa bekerja sama dan saling mendukung dalam pelaksanaan kebijakan SD-SMP Satu Atap; penyelenggaraan SD-SMP Satu Atap dapat menyerap tenaga kerja; (4) peran stakeholders dalam pendidikan sesuai dengan kewenangan dan kemampuan masing-masing.

Hasil penelitian ini merekomendasikan bahwa dalam implementasi kebijakan pendidikan harus memperhatikan aspek-aspek sosiobudaya, sosio ekonomi, sosiopolitik, psikologi, dan manajemen pendidikan. Dalam pelaksanaan suatu kebijakan harus mendapat dukungan dari semua pihak (stakeholders), ketersediaan sumberdaya dan kemudahan fasilitas yang diperlukan sehingga program wajib belajar dicapai secara efektif dan efisien.

 

ABSTRACTS

 

Wijayanti, Wiwik. 2011. The Policy Implementation of One-Roof Primary-Junior High School (A Multisite Study in Ngablak, Pakis, and Sawangan Regency Magelang District). Dissertation. Educational Management Program, School of Graduate Studies, State University of Malang. Advisors: (I) Prof. Dr. Hendyat Soetopo, M.Pd, (II) Prof. Dr. Ibrahim Bafadal, M.Pd, and (III) Prof. Ahmad Sonhadji KH., M.A., Ph. D.

 

Keywords: compulsory education, one-roof primary-junior high school, policy implementation.

Educational policy implementation is a set of processes involving executing, holding, or discovering options other than the set-up in order to achieve certain goals. One-roof Primary-Junior High School is an instance of educational policy. Certain educational system components should support the policy implementation of one-roof Primary-Junior High School in order to efficiently as well as effectively reach educational goals, some of which being availability of students, teachers, other educational staffs, curriculum, infrastructure, finance, and stakeholders.

There are always problems in educational management. Attempts to solve those problems are made to satisfy hopes and demands of the society. Planning in policy implementation of one-roof Primary-Junior High School is needed. The planning which has been designed and agreed by all needs to be socialized to the stake holders so that they completely comprehend and, thus, give support to the particular program or policy. After socialization, the next step is policy implementation. Within the fully supportive stakeholders, not to forget other components, one-roof Primary-Junior High School would have some power to show its existence and quality. However, how to implement the policy of one-roof Primary-Junior High School and its program's continuation has not been much revealed. Things explored in this research are related to the process of policy implementation of one-roof Primary-Junior High School, including its planning process, socialization process, implementation process, and the role of stakeholders.

This research aims at (1) describing the process of policy making of one-roof Primary-Junior High School, (2) describing the process of its policy socialization, (3) describing the process of its policy implementation, and (4) describing the role of stakeholders in the policy implementation of the school.

Qualitative research design is used and the research is done by means of multisite. The source of data includes the Principal of respective one-roof Primary-Junior High School as the key informan, teachers, students, the society, the Head of the UPT, and the Chief of Departmen of Education. The collection of data is divided into three steps, they are (1) preparation, (2) collection of data, and (3) organization of data. The collected data is, then, analyzed by (1) collection of data, (2) data display, (3) data reduction, and (4) drawing conclusion and verification. The checking of data validity is done by means of degree of trust, of involvement, of dependency, and of certainty.

The findings of the research on three one-roof Primary-Junior High Schools show that (1) the establishment of one-roof Primary-Junior High School has satisfied the requirements of isolated, segregated, and sprawl, based on the needs of the society (social demand approach), and has involved many people; (2) socialization is done by the Principals to some community leaders, and it is these people that deliver the message to the society; the society's awareness on education is increased; (3) the primary school, the junior high schools, and the leaders of the village work cooperatively and supportively to each other in implementing the policy of the one-roof school; the school turns out to be a new field work for people living around; (4) the role of stakeholders could be in any forms, considering their respective authority and ability.

The result of this research suggests that the implementation of educational policies needs to consider several aspects, namely sociocultural, socioeconomic, sociopolitical, psycological, and education management aspects. The implementation of certain policies should be supported by not only stakeholders but also the availability of appropriate facilities in order to effectively and eficiently achieve the goals of compulsory education program.