DISERTASI dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM, 2010

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

Manajemen Sekolah Dasar Negeri (SDN) Pasca Penggabungan Sekolah. (Studi Multi situs pada SDN Pagerwesi dan SDN Sumosari di Kabupaten Sidodadi). (Disertasi)

Suyitno Suyitno

Abstrak


Suyitno, 2010. Manajemen Sekolah Dasar Negeri (SDN) Pasca Penggabungan Sekolah. (Studi Multi situs pada SDN Pagerwesi dan SDN Sumosari di Kabupaten Sidodadi). Disertasi, Program Studi Manajemen Pendidikan, Program Pascasarjana, Universitas Negeri Malang. Pembimbing: (I) Prof. Dr. Willem Mantja, M.Pd., (II) Prof. Dr. Hendyat Soetopo, M.Pd., dan (III) Prof. Dr. Ibrahim Bafadal, M.Pd.

 

Kata kunci: manajemen, penggabungan sekolah, sekolah dasar

Penggabungan sekolah adalah merupakan salah satu upaya agar hakekat manajemen sekolah dapat diwujudkan yaitu efektifitas dan efisiensinya. Dua lembaga sekolah di satu lokasi/halaman sekolah dapat menimbulkan kerawanan konflik baik secara budaya, organisasi, maupun secara fisik. Secara budaya dapat berakibat benturan-benturan kebiasaan, sikap-perilaku yang dimiliki oleh warga di masing-masing lembaga sekolah; secara organisasi dapat memunculkan gesekan-gesekan antar sub sistem organisasi diantara masing-masing lembaga sekolah; secara fisik terjadi kalau konflik budaya dan konflik organisasi tersebut tidak terelakkan.

Selain permasalahan yang melanda sekolah-sekolah yang berada dalam satu halaman, bupati Sidodadi mengeluarkan keputusan tentang penggabungan sekolah dasar negeri sejak tahun 2005. Di dalam pelaksanaannya banyak kesulitan yang dihadapi oleh para kepala sekolah pemangkunya, hal tersebut bisa terjadi karena penggabungan sekolah dilaksanakan tidak disertai dengan pedoman pelaksanaan pasca penggabungan sekolah secara rinci.

Pada tahun 2006 di       Kabupaten Sidodadi terdapat tujuh puluh dua lembaga sekolah dasar negeri digabungkan menjadi tiga puluh enam lembaga sekolah. Sebagian besar juga menjumpai kesulitan yang relatif sama, sehingga peneliti tertarik terhadap dua sekolah dasar negeri yaitu SDN Pagerwesi (penggabungan dari SDN Pagerwesi I dengan SDN Pagerwesi II) Kecamatan Bundaran dan SDN Sumosari (penggabungan dari SDN Sumosari I dengan SDN Sumosari II) Kecamatan Panji untuk ditelitinya.

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menggambarkan manajemen sekolah pasca penggabungan yang terfokus kepada: (1) penyatuan wujud budaya para guru yang berasal dari dua kelompok lembaga sekolah asal masing-masing; melalui (a) pemusatan ruang guru, (b) menyesuaikan kebiasaan/perilaku antar kelompok guru, (c) memusatkan tempat kegiatan sekolah, (d) meningkatkan kegiatan sekolah, dan (e) pembentukan panitia Penerimaan Siswa Baru secara transparan; (2) penyatuan visi sekolah; melalui (a) pembahasan dua visi sekolah yang ada, dan (b) pembentukan visi sekolah yang baru; (3) pengorganisasian siswa; (4) pendayagunaan sarana-prasarana sekolah; (5) penyatuan kepengurusan komite sekolah; dan (6) efisiensi yang diperoleh pasca penggabungan sekolah.

Pendekatan yang digunakan adalah pendekatan kualitatif, rancangan studi multi situs dengan metode komparatif konstan serta induktif konseptualistik. Orientasi teoritis penelitian kualitatif yang digunakan adalah pendekatan fenomenologis. Adapun langkah-langkah pengumpulan data sesuai kategori fokus, hasilnya dianalisis sehingga menjadi teori sementara tentang manajemen sekolah

 

dasar negeri pasca penggabungan sekolah. Kemudian dilanjutkan pada situs kedua dan hasilnya dianalisis, dikomparasikan dengan teori sementara pada situs pertama. Pengumpulan data dilakukan secara berulang, sambil terus mengkomparasikan sampai diambil keputusan tentang teori yang mantap mengenai manajemen sekolah dasar negeri pasca penggabungan sekolah.

Penelitian ini dilakukan di SDN Pagerwesi dan SDN Sumosari dengan sumber data person dan non person. Sumber data person sebagai informan penelitian dipilih secara purposif dan dipadukan dengan teknik snowball sampling.

Data yang dikumpulkan melalui teknik wawancara mendalam, observasi partisipan dan studi dokumentasi. Dalam pelaksanaannya digunakan alat bantu: kertas catatan, format catatan lapangan, tustel, dan alat perekam. Untuk menjaga keabsahan data dilakukan kredibilitas, transferabilitas, dependabilitas, dan konfirmabilitas. Berkaitan dengan kredibilitas dilakukan dengan kegiatan(1) diskusi dengan teman sejawat, (2) trianggulasi, dan (3) pengecekan anggota. Berkaitan dengan dependabilitas dilakukan dengan kegiatan pembimbingan oleh para pembimbing disertasi dan untuk memeriksa konfirmabilitas dari senior peneliti. Analisis data dilakukan dengan menggunakan model analisis interaktif yang mencakup kegiatan sajian data, reduksi data, verifikasi dan penarikan kesimpulan. Analisis dilakukan di dalam situs dan lintas situs. Analisis lintas situs adalah pemaduan temuan-temuan sementara yang dirumuskan menjadi beberapa proposisi dari kedua situs tersebut, selanjutnya ditarik kesimpulan teoritik lintas situs.

Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa; (1) dalam penyatuan wujud budaya memerlukan suatu proses dan harus disertai saran atau strategi kepala sekolah yang memerlukan keuletan; (2) Mengenai penyatuan visi sekolah, sekolah mengkondisikan dua visi yang sudah ada dengan konsekuensinya menyempurnakan visi tersebut; (3) Tentang pengorganisasian siswa, diawali dengan penataan nomor induk siswa, penggabungan siswa ke dalam kelas, dan interaksi antar siswa yang berasal dari lembaga sekolah yang berlainan; (4) pendayagunaan sarana dan prasarana sekolah yang berwujud pemanfaatannya ke dalam semua kegiatan sekolah; (5) Penyatuan kepengurusan komite sekolah terdapat perbedaan, di SDN Pagerwesi kebetulan masa bakti kepengurusannya telah berakhir kedua-duanya, sehingga pembentukan bersamaan dengan reformasi pengurus, di SDN Sumosari kepengurusannya hanya dengan kesepakatan bendahara komite SDN Sumosari I (sebelum penggabungan) yang diamanati sebagai bendahara komite sekolah pasca penggabungan karena sebelum penggabungan pengurus komite sekolahnya adalah satu kepengurusan; dan (6) efisiensi pasca penggabungan sekolah berupa penurunan biaya operasional sekolah, bisa memberikan bantuan kesulitan pembayaran kekurangan kebutuhan biaya para siswa di sekolah, pengurangan beban pikiran dan tenaga para guru.

 Berdasarkan keseluruhan temuan teoritik di atas dapat ditarik sebuah teori substantif yaitu: Manajemen SDN Pagerwesi dan SDN Sumosari sudah "baik", namun perlu adanya tenaga atau petugas khusus yang menangani sarana prasarana dan tata usaha sekolah, juga peran serta komite sekolah di SDN Sumosari perlu ditingkatkan.

 

ABSTRACT

 

Suyitno, 2010. Management of Public Elementary School (SDN) after School Merging (A Multisite Study on SDN Pagerwesi and SDN Sumosari in Sidodadi Regency). A Deseration, Education Management Study Program, Postgraduate Program, State University of Malang. Supervisors: (I) Prof. Dr. Willem Mantja, M.Pd., (II) Prof. Dr. Hendyat Soetopo, M.Pd., and    (III) Prof. Dr. Ibrahim Bafadal, M.Pd.

 

Keywords: management, school merging, elementary school.

School merging is one of the efforts to achieve the fundamental natures of school management which are effectiveness and efficiency. Two schooling institutions located at one place or sharing the same school yard may trigger some conflicts which are cultural, organizational, or physical ones. Culturally, there may be some frictions in customs and behaviors of the members of each school institution; organizationally, there will be frictions among organization sub systems in each school institutions, and; physical conflict may occur when cultural and organizational conflicts are unavoidable to occur.

            Besides the problem faced by schools sharing the same school yard, the mayor of Sidodadi regency has issued a decree about elementary schools merging since 2005. However, there are some difficulties in merging practice faced by the headmasters of the schools. This happens because the school merging is executed without detailed guidelines on what to do after the school merging.

            In 2006, there were seventy two (72) public elementary schools in Sidodadi regency which were merged into thirty six (36) schools. Most of these schools faced relatively similar difficulties that made the researcher interested in conducted a research on two public elementary schools namely SDN Pagerwesi (the merger of SDN pagerwesi I and SDN Pagerwesi II) in Bundaran District and SDN Sumosari (the merger of SDN Sumosari I and SDN Sumosari II) in Panji District.

            This research aims at describing school management after school merging focusing on: (1) the merging of teachers' culture coming from two different school institutions through (a) centralizing teachers room, (b) adjusting customs/behavior of different teachers groups, (c) centralizing school activities places, (d) improving school activities, (e) establishing a committee for new students enrolment transparently; (2) the unification or merging the school vision by (a) discussing the two existing school visions, and (b) creating a new school vision ; (3) the organizing of students; (4) the optimization of the school facilities and infrastructures; (5) the merging of the school committee board; (6) the efficiency after school merging.

            This research used qualitative approach and the research design was multi-sites using constant and inductive conceptualistic comparative method. The applied theoretical orientation of qualitative research was phenomenology approach. The steps for the data collection were according to focus category whose result was analyzed to produce a temporary theory on management of public elementary school (SDN) after school merging. Then, the data collection was continued in the second site and the result was analyzed and compared with the temporary theory gained from the first site. The data collection was repeated and the result was continually compared until a decision on a convincing theory on public elementary school (SDN) management after school merging was made.

            This research was conducted at SDN Pagerwesi and SDN Sumosari using personal and non personal data source. Personal data source as research informants were selected purposively and combined with snowball sampling technique.

            The data were collected using in depth interview, participant observation, and documentation study. The aid instruments used in collecting the data were: note paper, field note form, camera, and recorder. The validity of the data was maintained by achieving credibility, transferability, and conformability. The credibility was achieved through (1) discussion with colleagues, (2) triangulation, and (3) member or peer checking. Dependability was maintained by consulting the supervisors, and the conformability was checked with the researcher's seniors. Data analysis was conducted using interactive analysis model involving the activity of data description, data reduction, verification, and drawing conclusion. The analysis was conducted in both inter-site and intra-sites. Intra-sites analysis was conducted by combining the temporary findings which were formulated into several propositions from two different sites. Then, intra-sites theoretical conclusion was made.

            The result findings show that (1) in culture merging, a process was needed and it had to be accompanied by the headmaster's direction or strategy which involve perseverance, (2) related to school vision merging, the school should acclimatize the two existing visions with consequences for refining the visions, (3) in term of organizing the students, it was initiated by rearranging student registration numbers, merging the students into classes, and accommodating interaction among students coming from different school institutions; (4) the optimization of school facilities and infrastructures was done by making use of those facilities for all school activities; (5) there were differences in merging the school committee boards: in SDN Pagerwesi the committee was formed together because the service terms of the previous committee of both schools ended at the same time as the reformation. On the other hand, in SDN Sumosari, the committee was founded only by the agreement that the committee treasurer of SDN Sumosari I was trusted as the committee treasurer after the merging because before the merging there was only one committee board; and (6) the efficiency after the school merging was in the form of reducing school operational fee, giving financial aids to students having difficulties in paying their school fee and needs, and reducing the emotional and physical burden of the teachers.

            Based on the whole theoretical findings above, a substantive theory can be drawn as follows: the management of SDN Pagerwesi and SDN Sumosari is already "good", however there need to be special officials handling the facilities and infrastructure matters. Moreover, the school management and the role of school committee in SDN Sumosari needs to be improved.