DISERTASI dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM, 2010

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

Meningkatkan Kemampuan Berpikir Logis dan Sikap Positif Siswa Terhadap Matematika Melalui Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) Pada Materi Aritmatika Sosial Siswa Kelas VII MTs Surya Buana Malang. (Tesis)

Anas Malik

Abstrak


Malik, Anas. 2010. Meningkatkan Kemampuan Berpikir Logis dan Sikap Positif Siswa Terhadap Matematika Melalui Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) Pada Materi Aritmatika Sosial Siswa Kelas VII MTs Surya Buana Malang. Tesis Program Studi Pendidikan Matematika, Program Pascasarjana Magister (S2) Universitas Negeri Malang. Pembimbing: (I) Drs. H. Shohibul Kahfi, M.Pd., (II) Dr. rer. nat. I Made Sulandra, M.Si.

 

Kata kunci: Berpikir Logis, Sikap Positif, Realistic Mathematics Education (RME), Aritmatika Sosial.

Pembelajaran merupakan proses komunikasi, agar pelaksanaannya berjalan efektif diperlukan alat bantu serta penggunaan metode tertentu yang lebih variatif. Idealnya dalam pembelajaran matematika, guru hendaknya menggunakan metode tertentu agar proses belajar dan kemampuan berpikir logis dan sikap positif siswa terhadap matematika lebih optimal. Berdasarkan hasil wawancara dan observasi terhadap guru matematika di MTs Surya Buana Malang, diperoleh fakta bahwa sebagian besar guru belum menggunakan metode pembelajaran yang memadahi dan menerapkan metode-metode yang memotivasi siswa untuk belajar. Proses pembelajaran yang dilakukan guru selama ini hanya mentransfer pengetahuan melalui buku-buku dengan cara mencatat dan menerangkan. Pembelajaran yang dilakukan guru belum diupayakan berpusat pada siswa.

Mencermati berbagai permasalahan tersebut, penelitian tentang meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir logis dan sikap positif siswa terhadap matematika melalui Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) penting untuk dilakukan. Penelitian dilaksanakan sejak bulan Oktober sampai Desember 2008 kelas VIIB di MTs Surya Buana Malang . Jenis penelitian yang digunakan adalah Penelitian Tindakan Kelas (PTK) yang dilaksanakan dalam 2 siklus dengan desain mengacu pada model Kemmis dan Taggart yang meliputi: tahap perencanaan, pelaksanaan tindakan, observasi/evaluasi dan refleksi.

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir logis dan sikap positif siswa terhadap matematika melalui Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) pada materi Aritmatika Sosial. Untuk mengetahui proses tersebut dilakukan pengamatan terhadap sintaks pembelajaran oleh guru dan siswa, sedangkan kemampuan berpikir logis siswa terhadap matematika diketahui melalui kemampuan kognitif siswa selama proses pembelajaran berlangsung. Selain itu, untuk mengetahui sikap positif dan persepsi siswa terhadap proses pembelajaran melalui Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) digunakan tes skala sikap dan angket persepsi. Adapun model Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) yang diterapkan dalam penelitian ini menggunakan langkah-langkah berikut ini. Pertama, Pendahuluan (Kegiatan Awal), meliputi (a) Pra Kegiatan; (b) Apersepsi; (c) Informasi materi dan informasi tujuan; dan Kedua Keadaan Pelaksanaan (Kegiatan inti), mencakup: (1) Penjelasan singkat tentang cara kerja; (2) Pembentukan kelompok/ Kerja individu; (3) Pemberian media pemecahan masalah termasuk LKS; (4) Siswa bekerja dalam kelompok secara berdiskusi sesuai dengan masalah yang harus diselesaikan; dan (5) Berdiskusi dan presentasi kelompok, Ketiga, Penutup (Kegiatan Akhir), mencakup: (a) Pembahasan hasil; (b) Simpulan; (c) Evaluasi; dan (d) refleksi dan pemberian tindak lanjut.

Hasil penelitian tentang meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir logis dan sikap positif siswa terhadap matematika melalui Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) dapat meningkatkan proses pembelajaran dari siklus I sebesar 83,3% menjadi 94,3% pada siklus II. Hal ini terjadi karena guru dalam melaksanakan kegiatan pembelajaran mengacu pada sintaks yang telah ditetapkan dalam program, demikian pula siswa dalam melaksanakan kegiatan pembelajaran mengikuti pola yang telah ditetapkan oleh guru. Peningkatan juga terjadi pada kemampuan kognitif subjek penelitian, pada siklus I nilai rata-rata 75,63 meningkat menjadi 84,00 pada siklus II. Hasil tes skala sikap siswa terhadap Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) secara klasikal juga meningkat, dari siklus I sebesar 67,17% menjadi 82,75% pada siklus II. Hasil tersebut menunjukkan bahwa pembelajaran yang dilakukan guru dengan Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) dapat menciptakan kondisi pembelajaran kondusif. Ketertarikan siswa dalam pembelajaran tersebut dapat dilihat dari hasil angket persepsi yang menunjukkan bahwa sejak awal siklus siswa memiliki persepsi positif terhadap Realistic Mathematics Education (RME). Hasil tes skala sikap siswa terhadap matematika juga meningkat dari hasil tes awal sebesar 7,00% sangat positif menjadi 40% sangat positif. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa dengan dilakukannya Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) sikap siswa terhadap matematika meningkat sangat positif.

Kesimpulan yang diperoleh dari penelitian tindakan ini adalah Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) dapat meningkatkan : 1) proses pembelajaran, 2) kemampuan berpikir logis siswa tehadap matematika, 3) persepsi positif bagi siswa, 4) sikap positif siswa tehadap matematika. Dengan demikian disarankan agar pembelajaran materi Aritmatika Sosial dilakukan oleh guru hendaknya menerapkan Realistic Mathematics Education (RME), agar pembelajaran berjalan dengan kondusif.

 

ABSTRACT

Malik, Anas. 2010. Improving Students' Logical Thinking Ability and Positive Attitude of Mathematics Through Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) Learning on Social Arithmetic Materials, 7th Grade at MTs Surya Buana Malang. Thesis. Post Graduate Program (S2) State University of Malang. Advisors: (I) Drs. H. Shohibul Kahfi, M.Pd., (II) Dr. rer. nat. I Made Sulandra, M.Si.

 

Key words : Logical Thinking, Positive Attitude, Realistic Mathematics Education (RME), Social Arithmatics.

Instruction is a communication process, therefore for its effective implementation, the use of varied tools and specific method is necessary. Ideally, in Mathematics learning, teachers should use certain method to achieve optimum process of learning and logical thinking skills and also positive attitudes of the students on Mathematics learning. Based on the results of interview and observations on mathematics teachers at MTs Surya Buana Malang, it was found the fact that most teachers did not use learning methods which facilitate and employ methods that motivate students to learn. The learning process done by the teacher so far had only transfer knowledge through books using record and explain method. Learning process conducted by the teachers have not attempt to focus on the student.

Observing these problems, research on improving the logical thinking and positive attitude of students towards mathematics learning through Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) is important to be done. The experiment was conducted from October to December 2008 at Class VIIB MTS Surya Buana Malang. The type of research is Classroom Action Research (CAR) which was conducted in two cycles with a design based on Kemmis and Taggart models that include: planning stage, action, observation/evaluation and reflection.

The research aims to improve logical thinking ability and positive attitude of the students in learning Mathematics through Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) on Social Arithmetic materials. To find out the process, observation on the syntax of learning by teachers and students was carried out, while students' logical thinking ability on the Mathematics subject was known through students' cognitive abilities during the learning process. In addition to that, to determine students' positive attitudes and perceptions towards the learning process, the scale test of the attitude and perception questionnaire was used in the study of Realistic Mathematics Education (RME). Whereas, the model of Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) applied in this study utilized the following steps: First, the Introduction, consisting of (a) Pre-activity; (b) Apperception; (c) Information on materials and information purposes, and (d) Core Activity, which include: (1) A brief explanation of the work flow; (2) The formation of group/individual work; (3) The provision of media for problem solving including the worksheet, (4) Students work in groups in a discussion based on the problem to be solved, and (5) Group discussion and presentation, Third, Closing (End Activities), consisting of (a) Discussion of the results, (b) Conclusion, (c) Evaluation and (d) reflection and the feedbacks.

Results of the research on improving logical thinking ability and positive attitude of the students towards mathematics learning through Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) was proven to enhance the learning process from the first cycle by 83.3% to 94.3% in cycle II. This occurs because in implementing learning activities, the teachers refer to the syntax specified in the program, and similarly, the students, in conducting learning activities, have followed the pattern set by the teacher. The increase also occurred in the cognitive abilities of the research subjects, where in the first cycle the average value of 75.63 increased to 84.00 on the second cycle. The result of scale test on the students' attitudes towards Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) classically has also increased, from the first cycle of 67.17% to 82.75% on the second cycle. These results suggest that learning conducted by the teacher using Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) can create conducive conditions to the learning process. Student's interest in learning can be seen from the perception questionnaire results, which show that since the beginning of the cycle students have positive perceptions on the Realistic Mathematics Education (RME). Attitude scale test results of the students toward Mathematic learning also increased from the initial test result was positive at 7.00% to very positive of 40%. This shows that the learning conducted using Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) had very positively increased student attitudes toward Mathematic learning.

Conclusion of this research are Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) can enhance: 1) the learning process, 2) students' logical thinking ability of Mathematics, 3) the positive perception for the students, 4) the positive attitude of students on Mathematics. Thus it is suggested that the Social Arithmetic learning materials conducted by teachers should apply the Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) in order to achieve a conducive learning process.