SKRIPSI Jurusan Biologi - Fakultas MIPA UM, 2019

Ukuran Huruf:  Kecil  Sedang  Besar

PENGEMBANGAN SOAL PILIHAN GANDA UNTUK MENGUKUR KEMAMPUAN BERPIKIR KRITIS PADA KD 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 KELAS XII MATA PELAJARAN BIOLOGI SMA PANJURA KOTA MALANG BERDASARKAN KURIKULUM 2013

Maydina Yoeshinta

Abstrak


RINGKASAN

Maydina, Yoeshinta. 2019. Pengembangan Soal Pilihan Ganda untuk Mengukur Kemampuan Berpikir Kritis Pada KD 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 Kelas XII Mata Pelajaran Biologi SMA Panjura Kota Malang Berdasarkan Kurikulum 2013. Skripsi, Program Studi Pendidikan Biologi, Jurusan Biologi, Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Universitas Negeri Malang. Pembimbing: (I) Drs. Triastono Imam Prasetyo, M.Pd, (II) Dra. Amy Tenzer, M.S.

Kata Kunci: Pengembangan Soal Pilihan Ganda, Kemampuan berpikir kritis, Biologi SMA kelas XII, Kompetensi Dasar 3.1, 3.2, dan 3.3.

Tujuan pengembangan kurikulum 2013 yaitu untuk mempersiapkan siswa dalam menghadapi tantangan eksternal dengan berbagai keterampilan. Salah satu keterampilan tersebut adalah keterampilan berpikir kritis. Salah satu usaha yang dilakukan guru untuk dapat mengukur keterampilan berpikir kritis pada siswa dapat dengan mengembangkan instrumen soal pilihan ganda. Instrumen yang dikembangkan dalam penelitian ini berjumlah 33 soal pilihan ganda jawaban tunggal dengan lima pilihan jawaban. Instrumen ini mengacu pada indikator soal dan indikator kemampuan berpikir kritis. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk

(1) mengembangkan produk berupa soal pilihan ganda jawaban tunggal dari Kompetensi Dasar (KD) 3.1, 3.2, dan 3.3 untuk mengukur kemampuan berpikir kritis di SMA Panjura Malang pada siswa kelas XII

(2) menguji kelayakan, kepraktisan dan validitas empiris soal pilihan ganda jawaban tunggal dalam mengukur kemampuan berpikir kritis dari Kompetensi Dasar (KD) 3.1, 3.2, dan 3.3 di SMA Panjura Malang pada siswa kelas XII.

Pengembangan soal pilihan ganda ini menggunakan model pengembangan ADDIE yang terdiri dari 5 tahap yaitu:

(1) analisis,

(2) perancangan,

(3) Pengembangan,

(4) implementasi,

(5) evaluasi. Perolehan data didapatkan dari

(1) hasil validitas logis oleh ahli evaluasi, ahli materi, dan praktisi lapangan sebagai uji kelayakan,

(2) hasil angket respon siswa dan guru sebagai uji kepraktisan, dan

(3) hasil validitas empiris yang meliputi tingkat kesukaran, daya beda, reliabilitas, dan analisis pengecoh dengan menggunakan program Anates versi 4.

Hasil uji coba kelompok kecil dijabarkan sebagai berikut. Berdasarkan uji kelayakan yaitu validitas logis yang terdiri dari validitas isi dan konstruk pada produk pengembangan soal pilihan ganda jawaban tunggal ini telah valid yaitu soal sesuai dengan isi materi pembelajaran serta kata kerja dalam soal sesuai dengan kata kerja pada indikator keterampilan berpikir kritis maupun indikator soal. Berdasarkan uji kepraktisan yaitu analisis angket respon siswa diperoleh rata-rata uji kepraktisan sebesar 93,93%. Berdasarkan analisis validitas empiris dengan menggunakan program Anates versi 4 diperoleh hasil Tingkat kesukaran meliputi soal mudah dengan presentasi 15,15% (5 soal), sedang 57,57% (19 soal), sukar 27,27% (9 soal) dengan rasio soal mudah : sedang : sukar yaitu 3:6:2. Daya bedanya diperoleh kriteria kriteria jelek 57% (19 soal), kriteria baik sebesar 33% (11 soal), kriteria baik sekali 9,09% (3 soal). Analisis pengecoh diperoleh pengecoh yang berfungsi sebesar 60,60% yang tidak berfungsi sebesar 39,39% pada uji coba ini.

Penjabaran hasil uji coba kelompok besar sebagai berikut. Berdasarkan uji kepraktisan yaitu analisis angket respon siswa diperoleh rata-rata uji kepraktisan sebesar 93,38% dan analisis angket respon guru diperoleh rata-rata uji kepraktisan sebesar 100%. Berdasarkan analisis validitas empiris dengan menggunakan program Anates versi 4 diperoleh hasil Tingkat kesukaran meliputi soal mudah dengan presentasi 24,24% (8 soal), sedang 60,60% (20 soal), sukar 15,15% (5 soal) dengan rasio soal mudah:sedang:sukar yaitu 2:6:2. Daya bedanya diperoleh kriteria sangat jelek sebesar 10% (3 soal), kriteria jelek 21% (7 soal), kriteria cukup 21% (7soal), dan kriteria baik sebesar 48% (16 soal). Analisis pengecoh diperoleh pengecoh yang berfungsi sebesar 90% yang tidak berfungsi sebesar 09% pada uji coba ini. Reliabilitas diperoleh nilai reliabilitas 0,64 artinya instrumen penilaian memiliki tingkat reliabilitas kategori tinggi. Berdasarkan uji coba kelompok besar dilakukan revisi. Saran yang dianjurkan adalah sebaiknya peneliti melakukan penelitian pada populasi yang berbeda dengan jumlah yang lebih besar lagi.

SUMMARY

Maydina, Yoeshinta. 2019.  The Development of Multiple Choice Questions to Measure Critical Thinking Ability Students of Basic Competence 3.1, 3.2, 3.2 of Class XII at 2013 Curriculum in Panjura Senior High School Malang. Skripsi, Biology Education Study Program, Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, State University of Malang. Advisor: (I) Drs. Triastono Imam Prasetyo, M.Pd, (II) Dra. Amy Tenzer, M.S.

Keywords: The Development of Multiple Choice Questions, Critical thinking ability, High School Biology of class XII, Basic Competence 3.1, 3.2, and 3.3.

The purpose of developing the 2013 curriculum is to prepare students to face external challenges. The challenge is to prepare students to be ready to face the future of the 21st century with a variety of skills. One of these skills is critical thinking skills. One of effort by the teacher to be able to measure critical thinking skills in students can be by developing multiple choice instruments. The instruments developed in this study amounted to 33 single choice multiple choice questions with five answer choices. This instrument refers to the indicator indicators and indicators of critical thinking skills. This study aims to

(1) develop products in the form of single choice multiple choice questions from Basic Competencies (KD) 3.1, 3.2, and 3.3 to measure critical thinking skills in Panjura High School Malang in class XII students

(2) test the feasibility, practicality and effectiveness of single choice multiple choice questions in measuring critical thinking skills from Basic Competencies (KD) 3.1, 3.2, and 3.3 in Panjura High School Malang in class XII students.

The development of this multiple choice question uses the ADDIE development model which consists of 5 stages:

(1) analysis,

(2) design,

(3) Development,

(4) implementation,

(5) evaluation. Data obtained from

(1) the results of logical validity by evaluation experts, material experts, and field practitioners as a feasibility test,

(2) the results of student and teacher response questionnaires as a practicality test, and

(3) the results of empirical validity which includes the level of difficulty, power difference, reliability, and deception analysis using the Anates version 4 program as a practicality test.

The results of the small group trials are described as follows. Based on the feasibility test that is logical validity consisting of content validity and constructs on the product the development of multiple choice questions this single answer has been valid, namely the question in accordance with the content of the learning material and the verb in the question according to the verb on indicators of critical thinking skills and indicator indicators. Based on the practicality test, namely the student response questionnaire analysis, the practicality test average was 93.93%. Based on the effectiveness test that is empirical validity analysis using the Anates version 4 program the results of the difficulty level include easy questions with presentations 15.15% (5 questions), moderate 57.57% (19 questions), difficult 27.27% (9 questions) with the ratio of easy questions: moderate: difficult namely 3: 6: 2. The difference is obtained by the criteria of poor criteria 57% (19 questions), good criteria of 33% (11 questions), excellent criteria 9.09% (3 questions). Deceptive analysis was obtained by deception which functioned at 60.60% which did not function at 39.39% in this trial.

The description of the results of large group trials as follows. Based on the practicality test, namely the student response questionnaire analysis, the average practicality test was 93.38% and the teacher's questionnaire response analysis obtained an average practicality test of 100%. Based on the effectiveness test that is empirical validity analysis using the Anates version 4 program the results of the difficulty level include easy questions with presentation 24.24% (8 questions), moderate 60.60% (20 questions), difficult 15.15% (5 questions) with the ratio of easy questions: moderate: difficult namely 2: 6: 2. The difference is obtained by very bad criteria of 10% (3 questions), bad criteria of 21% (7 questions), sufficient criteria of 21% (7 questions), and good criteria of 48% (16 questions). Outmoded analysis was obtained by deception which functioned at 90% which did not function by 09% in this trial. Reliability obtained by the reliability value of 0.64 means that the assessment instrument has a high level of reliability. Based on the trials the large group was revised. The recommended suggestion is that teachers and other researchers should continue to validate in order to obtain good evaluation instruments and conduct research on a larger population.